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1 Doppler Wind Lidar Technology Roadmap Ken Miller, Mitretek Systems Coauthors –see Reference 2 January 27, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Doppler Wind Lidar Technology Roadmap Ken Miller, Mitretek Systems Coauthors –see Reference 2 January 27, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Doppler Wind Lidar Technology Roadmap Ken Miller, Mitretek Systems Coauthors –see Reference 2 January 27, 2004

2 2 Agenda Purpose and Background Measurement Concept Reference Designs Hybrid DWL Point Design Activities Leading to Operations Near Term Issues Requirements Trades Component Technology Roadmaps Conclusions Technology Readiness Time Scale References

3 3 Purpose Achieve mature DWL technology and reduce risk for operational wind profiles from space Alternative instrument approaches Roadmaps for key technology elements assuming a hybrid instrument Sources Government planning document, GTWS Strategy for Obtaining Operational Wind Profiles from Space (June 2003) Paper on Working Group Web Site: Technology Roadmap for Deploying Operational Wind Lidar (January 2004)

4 4 References 1. Global Tropospheric Wind Sounder (GTWS), A Strategy for Obtaining Operational Wind Profiles from Space, F. Amzajerdian, R. Atlas, W. Baker, J. Barnes, D. Emmitt, B. Gentry, I. Guch, M. Hardesty, M. Kavaya, S. Mango, K. Miller, S. Neeck, J. Pereira, F. Peri, U. Singh, G. Spiers, J. Yoe (June 20, 2003) 2. Technology Roadmap for Deploying Operational Wind Lidar, F. Amzajerdian, D. Emmitt, B. Gentry, I. Guch, M. Kavaya, K. Miller, J. Yoe, (January 20, 2004)

5 5 Background Stable data requirements Validated by OSSEs Quantified benefits Alternative DWL techniques Coherent (reference designs) Direct Detection (reference designs) Hybrid (point design) Need to advance technology readiness Lasers Detectors Low-mass telescopes Scanners Momentum compensation

6 6 Background (concluded) Current instrument activities Demonstrating ground and airborne DWLs IPO Airborne work on calibration/validation Hybrid concepts NOAA/UNH Operating 2 GroundWinds lidars Developing a balloon demonstration NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) Related activities Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA) European Space Agency (ESA)

7 7 Measurement Concept 7.7 km/s 400 km 585 km 414 km 290 km 45° 7.2 km/s Horizontal TSV 45 o nadir angle Scan through 8 azimuth angles Fore and aft perspectives in TSV Move scan position ~ 1 sec No. shots averaged ~ 5 sec * prf 4 ground tracks Aft perspective Ref: Kavaya

8 8 Reference Designs Telescope with Sunshade Radiator Rotating Deck Coherent Direct Belt Drive Radiator Component Housing Component Boxes Note: Large solar arrays not shown

9 9 Reference Designs (concluded) Roughly comparable cost and complexity Large and heavy spacecraft Massive optical components Extremely high electrical power consumption

10 10 Hybrid DWL Point Design 2 subsystems, coherent and direct detection End-to-end improvement vs. single DWL Coherent subsystem: 15 to 30 X Direct Detection subsystem: 4 to 8 X Reduced technology requirements end-to-end Laser power, telescope, optical efficiency, detection Spacecraft mass, energy, momentum compensation Should make development more tractable But may complicate mission and spacecraft issues Emmitt (2004)

11 11 Activities Leading to Operations Data Requirements & Tradeoffs Achieve Technology Readiness Ground & Airborne Demos Architecture Concepts Space Demonstration Develop Operational Mission Launch

12 12 Near Term Issues Technology development Data requirements vs. benefits trade study Architecture concepts Hybrid reference design Calibration and validation Mission and spacecraft alternatives Impacts on data products from atmospheric properties, DWL alternatives, and spacecraft mechanics

13 13 Threshold Requirement Technology Risk Impacts Mechanism Vertical TSV 1 Resolution (1 km) Laser, detector, telescope Increasing vertical TSV dimension increases photon accumulation Horizontal TSV Dimension (100 km) Laser, detector, telescope, scanner Increasing horizontal TSV dimension, combined with relaxing horizontal resolution would allow more shot accumulation and simplify scanner Horizontal Resolution - Along Track (350 km), Laser, detector, telescope, scanner Increasing beyond 350 km increases time for shot averaging and scanner movement Horizontal Resolution – Cross-Track (4 lines) Laser, detector, telescope, scanner Less Cross-Track observation lines increases time for shot accumulation and scanner movement 2 discrete perspectives in TSV ScannerConsider non-discrete method, e.g., conical scan Wind Velocity AccuracyLaser, telescope, detector Reduced accuracy reduces laser, optics, and detector requirements Requirements Trades 1 Target Sample Volume (TSV) is the maximum atmospheric volume averaged in a single wind observation

14 14 Component Technology Roadmaps Technology DevelopmentDirect Detection Coherent Detection Hybrid Detection LaserXXX Optical FiltersXX Telescope and ScannerXXX Detectors, Arrays, EfficiencyXXX Pointing TechnologyXXX Tunable LO LaserXX AutoalignmentXX Hybrid Ref DesignsX Hybrid Integration DesignsX

15 15 Direct Detection Component and Subsystem Development and Demo Component TechnologiesSubsystems Tunable etalon filters Photon counting detectors Holographic scanners Fiber coupled telescopes Field measurements Doppler lidar receivers 1. Evaluate components 2. Establish performance criteria/ specs 1. Evaluate subsystem designs/ concepts 2. Interface issues/answers 3. Environmental sensitivities 1. Measurement heritage/experience 2. Algorithm development 3. Evaluate atmospheric effects 4. Link technology performance to science product - winds 5. Develop robust instrument models Novel receiver optics Single frequency lasers Gentry (2003)

16 16 Direct Detection Subsystem Laser Performance Objectives MaterialAll solid state Pulse characteristics1064 nm 1 to 3 J 20 ns pulse length Hz < 200 MHz 355 nm > 35% harmonic conversion to 355 nm Lifetime> 5x10 9 shots MassLow (tbd) PowerLow (tbd) Wallplug efficiency6 to 8% CoolingConductive Gentry (2003)

17 17 Laser Roadmap – Direct Detection Subsystem Single frequency, 30W, frequency tripled, partially Conductively-Cooled 1-Micron Laser Flight Qualified All Conductively-Cooled 1- Micron Laser Ground Lidar Validation Airborne Lidar Validation Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Primary Path Secondary Path Completed Item  Milestone 1 In Progress 1 2 Diode array life test/qualification Non-linear optics testing Thermal Management Materials testing (radiation, uv exposure, optical damage ) 3 LRRP Gentry (2003)

18 18 Telescope Roadmap – Direct Detection Subsystem Mechanical Rotating Telescope/ Scanner Rotating HOE or DOE Telescope/Scanner Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Ground Lidar Validation Airborne Lidar Validation 1 Primary Path Secondary Path Completed Item  Milestone 1 In Progress 3 Lightweight Materials Advanced concepts (e.g. deployables) 2 Gentry (2003)

19 19 Pointing Technology Roadmap – Direct Detection Subsystem INS/GPS Airborne Lidar Validation Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Ground Lidar Validation Star Tracker Surface Return Algorithm Telescope-to-Optical Bench Alignment Sensor Target: 0.2 deg pre-shot pointing knowledge 50  rad final pointing knowledge Primary Path Secondary Path Completed Item  Milestone 1 In Progress Gentry (2003)

20 20 Laser Roadmap – Coherent Subsystem Partial Conductively-Cooled 2-Micron Laser All Liquid-Cooled 2-Micron Laser All Conductively-Cooled 2-Micron Laser Ground Lidar Validation Airborne Lidar Validation Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Primary Path Secondary Path Ground Lidar Validation Airborne Lidar Validation Completed Item Ground Lidar Validation  Progress Mark In Progress Amzajerdian, Kavaya (2003)

21 21 Scanning Subsystem – Coherent Subsystem Rotating Telescope Scanner Rotating Wedge Scanner Electro-Optic Scanner Ground Lidar Validation Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Primary Path Secondary Path Ground Lidar Validation Airborne Lidar Validation Completed Item  Progress Mark Airborne Lidar Validation In Progress Amzajerdian, Kavaya (2003)

22 22 Pointing Roadmap –Coherent Subsystem Primary Path Secondary Path INS/GPS Airborne Lidar Validation Space Lidar Demonstration Space Operational Mission Ground Lidar Validation Star Tracker Surface Return Algorithm Completed Item  Progress Mark Telescope-to-Optical Bench Alignment Sensor In Progress Pointing target performance 0.2 degrees pre-shot pointing knowledge 50 µrad final pointing knowledge Amzajerdian, Kavaya (2003)

23 23 Additional Component Technology Roadmaps See Reference 2

24 24 Conclusions Technology development comes first Lasers Detectors Low-mass telescopes Scanners Momentum compensation) Data requirements vs. benefits trades may reduce technology development time Architecture concepts – some near term areas Hybrid reference design Calibration and validation Mission and spacecraft alternatives Impacts on data products from atmospheric properties, DWL alternatives, and spacecraft mechanics

25 25 Technology Readiness Time Scale Funding levels, technology advances Longest lead time estimates Flight qualified lasers – 4 years Electro-optic scanners – up to 6 years


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