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©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9 Understanding the Reasons Positive and Negative Behavior.

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1 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9 Understanding the Reasons Positive and Negative Behavior

2 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Defining Problem Behavior Adult-centered definitions of misbehavior focus on effect child’s behavior has on the adult Child-centered definitions of misbehavior… –Consider appropriateness or inappropriateness of actions –Focus on ability level, motives and long-term well- being

3 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children misbehave because they… —Are bursting with energy and joy —Do not understand what we expect —Cannot do what we expect —Feel bored, tired or miserable

4 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Children misbehave because they… (Continued) —Are desperate for attention — Are overwhelmed by frustration — Are angry or resentful — Feel totally hopeless or helpless

5 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Dysfunctional Behavior Compulsive, inappropriate, or self- destructive behavior Uncooperative social interactions Hazardous actions Improper use of environment

6 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Inappropriate Behavior –Behavior not desirable in a specific situation –It does not suggest fault or blame

7 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Inappropriate behavior is… —Not in the best interest of the child —Troublesome —Sometimes unsafe

8 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Functional Behavior Appropriate actions that serve some productive or positive function Cooperative social interactions Safety-conscious actions Proper use of environment

9 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

10 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Socialization The process by which children learn acceptable behavior

11 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Components of Moral Development Empathy Conscience Altruism

12 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Methods to support children’s moral development Provide nurturing and support Set limits Model appropriate behavior Teach democratic decision-making and discussion

13 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

14 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Moral Development Morality –ability to distinguish right from wrong and act accordingly Moral development –process by which human beings learn to monitor their own actions –deciding whether a tempting behavior is appropriate or inappropriate

15 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Moral Development (continued) Moral affect –Internalization of moral values from adult role models –Feelings associated with guilty or clear conscience Moral reasoning –Thinking processes for deciding what is or is not moral behavior

16 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Moral Development (continued) Preconventional morality Lawrence Kohlberg’s first stage of morality –Children perceive right and wrong in terms of what the behavior will do for them. “Will action get what I want?” “Will action avoid what I don’t want?” –Explaining reasons for rules fosters moral development.

17 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

18 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Moral Development (continued) Conventional morality Kohlberg’s second stage of morality –Develop self-control and learn to get along with others –Focus on simplistic perceptions of goodness and badness –Desire to please others –Try to follow rules of family and community –Begin to adopt ethical standards of important role models –Attachment, love and respect trigger internalization of values

19 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Stages of Moral Development (continued) Postconventional morality Kohlberg’s highest stage of morality –Older children and adults develop internal conscience –Conscience hinges on internalized principles and values that guide behavior –Focus on being responsible part of cooperative society

20 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Justice Orientation Perspective in which integrity tends to be the dominant “moral compass” for making autonomous, independent and self- oriented ethical and principled decisions

21 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Responsibility Orientation Perspective in which sensitivity to others, interpersonal involvement and ethical and moral decision-making reflect… –Loyalty –Responsibility –Self-sacrifice –Peacemaking

22 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Judging The process of using perceptions to create conclusions and value judgments Some adults judge children’s behavior

23 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Induction The process of stimulating children’s understanding of the reasons for choosing one behavior over another The process of thinking about the impact a behavior will have Some adults use inductive reasoning to help children learn self-control

24 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Guidance Positive child guidance focuses on… –Child’s ability level –Severity and intent of behavior –Possible reasons for behavior

25 ©Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Underlying Causes of Problem Behavior Inappropriate expectations Misunderstood expectations Immature self- control Gleeful abandon, group contagion Boredom Fatigue and discomfort Desire for recognition Discouragement Frustration Rebellion

26 Temperament –Three main types: Easy Difficult Slow to warm up –Emotions are felt, but reactions to the emotions are learned. –Appropriate responses to an emotion need to be taught.

27 Temperament Children are born with their natural style of interacting with or reacting to people, places, and things—their temperament Biological Predisposition Rhythmical functioning Circadian rhythmicity Interest in novelty Approach to new situations, curiosity Inclination to “outside’ or “inside”

28 Goodness of fit Relationship with caregiver’s style: Good fit, or poor fit Parent adapts caregiving to child’s unique characteristics Parent modifies expectation

29 Temperament Chess & Thomas Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess began a classic longitudinal study in the 1950s regarding infant temperament. The study focused on how temperamental qualities influence adjustment throughout life. Chess and Thomas rated young infants on a variety of characteristics, such as activity level, mood, sleeping and eating patterns, and attention span.

30 Temperament Chess & Thomas The found that most babies could be categorized into one of three groups: –Easy –Difficult –Slow to warm-up About one third of all infants tested were characterized as average babies because they did not fit neatly into one of these three categories (Thomas & Chess 1977).

31 Temperament Easy babies readily adapt to new experiences, generally display positive moods and emotions and also have normal eating and sleeping patterns. Difficult babies tend to be very emotional, irritable and fussy, and cry a lot. They also tend to have irregular eating and sleeping patterns. Slow-to-warm-up babies have a low activity level, and tend to withdraw from new situations and people. They are slow to adapt to new experiences. Thomas and Chess found that these broad patterns of temperamental qualities are remarkably stable through childhood.


33 Temperament Most experts agree that temperament does have a genetic and biological basis; but researchers also agree that environmental experiences can modify a child's temperament. Adults can encourage new behaviors in children, and with enough support a slow-to-warm-up child can become less shy, or a difficult baby can become more emotionally stable.

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