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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and the Study of Culture (Miller Chapter 1)

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1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and the Study of Culture (Miller Chapter 1)

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions  What is anthropology?  What are the goals of anthropology?  What are the fields of anthropology?  What are some key aspects of anthropology?  How is anthropology relevant to a career in the “real world”?  How can anthropology be applied?

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is Anthropology?  What do you know about anthropology?  What do you think of when someone mentions anthropology? How did you acquire these impressions?  What do you think anthropology is?

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is Anthropology?  Anthropology is…  The study of humanity, including our prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity (p. 4)  The study of humankind in all times and all places

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Goals of Anthropology  What do you think are the main goals of anthropology?  Why is anthropology important?

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Goals of Anthropology  Discover what makes people different from one another  Study diversity and preserve diversity  Discover what all people have in common  Study commonalities in all humanity  Understand more about “human nature”  Look at our own culture more objectively, like an outsider  Make “the strange familiar and the familiar strange”  Produce new knowledge and new theories about humankind and human behavior  Apply this knowledge in an attempt to alleviate human challenges

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology  What are the fields of anthropology? (hint: there are four of them!)

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology Archaeology (or prehistory) Biological (or physical) anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology (or social anthropology)

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Fields of Anthropology  Four fields (p. 4) –Biological anthropology Also known as physical anthropology –Archaeology –Linguistic Anthropology –Cultural anthropology Also known as social anthropology or sociocultural anthropology

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Biological Anthropology  The study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation (p. 4 – 5)  Some subfields of biological anthropology include…  Paleoanthropology (Human evolution)  Leakey family  Primatology (Nonhuman primates)  Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey  Examine what we share with our primate relatives as well as what makes humans unique  Contemporary human variation and adaptation  Molecular/genetic anthropology  Forensic anthropology (application to legal issues)  Bones, Dr. Temperance Brennan – inspired by real-life forensic anthropologist Kathy Reichs

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Archaeology  Study of past human cultures through their material remains (p. 4 – 6)  Study of past human cultures through the recovery and analysis of artifacts  Some subfields of archaeology include… –Old World archaeology Africa, Europe, and Asia –New World archaeology North, Central, and South America –Underwater archaeology Settlements now submerged by water –Prehistorical archaeology Before written records –Historical archaeology Have written documents “Garbage project” – Tucson and New York - consumption and environmental effects –More beers –Paper more of a problem than initially thought

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Linguistic Anthropology  Study of communication, mainly (but not exclusively) among humans  Includes the study of communication’s origins, history, and contemporary variation (p. 4 & 6)  Some subfields of linguistic anthropology include…  Historical linguistics  The study of language change over time and how languages are related  Structural (descriptive) linguistics  The study of the formal structure of languages and their similarities and differences  Sociolinguistics  The study of communication in social life (analysis of discourse) and the variations of communication in different cultural contexts

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultural Anthropology  Study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change (p. 4 & 6 – 7)  Some subfields of cultural anthropology include…  Economic anthropology  How people in different cultures make a living  Political anthropology  Study of social groups, politics, power  Psychological anthropology  Study of interaction between culture and the human mind  Medical anthropology  Study of interaction between culture and health  Development anthropology  Making development projects more socially sensitive and culturally appropriate  Cultural anthropologists also study art, religion, migration, marriage, family…and MORE

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Approaches in the Four Fields  Anthropology has been called “the most humane of the sciences and the most scientific of the humanities”  Wide range of approaches that span:  Science (hypothesis, observation, and testing)  Humanities (more subjective, based on feeling)  Anthropology as a social science is empirical – based on observations rather than on intuition or faith  Fieldwork (being on location and fully immersed in another way of life) is a core methodological aspect of anthropology

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology  Holistic perspective  Holism – the view that cultures are complex systems and one must study all their interconnected aspects in order to understand the whole culture (p. 10)  Must study social, political, economic, and religious practices and institutions in order to understand the whole culture  Cross-cultural, comparative perspective  Ethnology – the study of a particular topic (such as marriage forms, religious beliefs, etc.) in more than one culture (p. 19)

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology (continued)  Takes a long-term perspective  Relies on extensive fieldwork  Participant observation or ethnographic research  May result in an ethnography – an in-depth description of a culture based on firsthand (primary) research (p. 19)  Traditionally focuses on the poor, powerless, everyday Joe versus elite people  Traditionally has studied small, remote communities, often in rural areas

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ethnography and Ethnology Summary  ETHNOGRAPHY –means “culture writing” –provides a first-hand, detailed description of a living culture –based on first-hand fieldwork and research of one culture  ETHNOLOGY –the study of one topic in more than one culture marriage forms, economic practices, religion, etc. –comparative and cross-cultural –uses ethnographic material collected by a number of researchers

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology  Focus on cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism  Ethnocentrism is judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than the standards of other cultures  The belief that one’s own culture is the way of life and that other ways of life are strange and inferior

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology  Focus on cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism  Cultural relativism is the belief that each culture must be understood in terms of its own values and beliefs and not by the standards of another culture  Is the opposite of ethnocentrism  The belief that no culture is better than any other culture  Is gained by exposure to “other” ways with a sympathetic eye and ear to appreciating differences

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology  Absolute cultural relativism versus critical cultural relativism  Absolute cultural relativism says that whatever goes on in a particular culture must not be questioned or change because it would be ethnocentric to question any behavior or idea anywhere.  Any Star Trek fans?  What is the “Prime Directive”?  No one shall interfere with the culture/cultural evolution of another planet under any conditions  What are some challenges of absolute cultural relativism?

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Some Key Aspects of Anthropology  Critical cultural relativism is an alternative to absolute cultural relativism  Critical cultural relativism says that some of what goes on in a particular culture can be questioned or changed because of an idea of a set of universal human rights.  Star Trek fans, was the “Prime Directive” ever broken/bent?  Under what conditions?  What are some challenges of critical cultural relativism?

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Absolute vs. Critical Cultural Relativism  Star Trek Prime Directive  Prime Directive Debate - L6UCCAE

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Absolute vs. Critical Cultural Relativism  What role does any concept of “fate” play in our decisions?  What role do emotions and should emotions play in determining action within a different culture?  When is it acceptable for a person to interfere or not interfere in the affairs of another culture? Genocide? Enslavement? Disease/epidemic? Natural disasters? Long-term war? What if someone asks/cries out for assistance?  Is cultural relativism a matter of degrees or an absolute?

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Applied Anthropology  Anthropology put to use  Involves the use or application of anthropological knowledge to help solve social problems or to shape and achieve policy goals. (p. 4 & 7)  Is applied anthropology a separate field?  No…  Just like theory, application should be a valued part of every field of anthropology  Applied aspects integrated within each field

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

26 Applied Biological Anthropology  Forensic anthropology  Utilizing anthropological theories and techniques to legal problems, often helping solve crimes and identifying victims of mass fatalities and/or human rights abuses  Primatology  Helping with nonhuman primate conservation  Developing ecotourism projects to help generate funds for local human communities while conserving nonhuman primate populations  Ergonomics and design  Building databases on body size and shape of soldiers to help design jet fighter cockpits

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Applied Archaeology  Cultural Resource Management (CRM)  Assessing the presence of possible archaeological remains (cultural resources) before government- funded construction projects such as roads and buildings can proceed  Applied archaeologists may also work in…  Museums – creating exhibits and preserving artifacts  Historic preservation  Environmental management – applying ancient techniques of environmental management to contemporary environmental problems

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Applied Linguistic Anthropology  Applied linguistic anthropologists are involved in…  Preserving and documenting indigenous languages worldwide that are rapidly becoming extinct  Looking at the role of information technology (such as internet and cell phones) in communication among various cultures  Developing bilingual education programs  Forensic linguistics  A linguistic anthropologist testified at a trial that six Shoshone women accused of defrauding the Social Security administration were not sufficiently fluent in English to understand government agents when the rules were explained. The case against the women was then dismissed and further contacts with the Shoshone women regarding Social Security were made with interpreters.

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Applied Cultural Anthropology  Applied cultural anthropologists work in…  Education  Health care  Business  Conflict prevention and resolution  Advocacy and activism  Poverty reduction  Community development  International development

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 So can someone with a degree/minor/coursework in anthropology really get a good job?  Yes!!  About ½ of all anthropologists work in academia  ½ of all anthropologists work outside of colleges/universities

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Those who study anthropology learn relevant skills that employers value  Knowledge of qualitative and quantitative research methods  Detailed observation / participant observation  Communication and writing skills  Interviewing  Systematic documentation  Holistic approach – understand complexity and look at the larger context  Multicultural perspective / Respect for cultural differences / “cultural brokers”  Social ease in strange situations  Experience working with people of diverse backgrounds

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and Business (Corporate Anthropology)  A 1999 edition of USA Today called an anthropology degree a “hot asset in corporate America”  Citicorp  Created a vice presidency for an anthropologist who discovered early warning signs to identify people who don’t pay their credit card bills  Hallmark  Hires anthropologists to go into the homes of immigrants, attending holidays and birthday parties in order to better design cards they’ll want  Because no survey can tell engineers what women really want in a razor, marketing companies even send anthropologists into bathrooms to watch women shave their legs in order to design better razors! (product design/marketing)

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropology and Business (Corporate Anthropology)  General Motors  Hired an anthropologist to study the “corporate culture” and “subcultures” at GM (her Ph.D. fieldwork was studying Mexican- American farmworkers and Catholic nuns!)  AT&T Labs in California  Has an anthropologist who examines consumers’ behavior in their homes and offices (for her postdoc research she lived with villagers in Western Samoa trying to understand the cultural reasons that people there have an average of eight children)  Intel  Has an “engineering and design ethnographer” who studies how to better integrate technology into people’s lives  Motorola  Has an anthropologist who is the manager of “culture and technology initiatives” that helps develop technology that fits into the way people live their day-to-day lives  General Mills  Susan Squires, an anthropologist, helped to develop drinkable yogurt (Go-Gurt) after observing American households’ breakfast routines (product design) (p. 1)  Cross-cultural training

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Liberal Arts/Sciences and Business Careers  CEO of Tempur-pedic majored in biology and linguistics in college!  Encourages individuals who want to work for his company to study liberal arts and sciences  Leads to the development of great critical thinking and communications skills  Have a greater breadth of knowledge rather than just purely focusing on a business major

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions  What is culture?  What are the characteristics of culture?  What are subcultures/microcultures?  What are some of the major theories/debates in anthropology?

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture and Anthropology  Culture is the core concept in cultural anthropology, but…  Anthropologists do not agree on how to define it  Anthropologists have proposed hundreds of definitions of culture  Culture is one of the most complicated and difficult to define words in the English language

37 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 In Popular Culture…  Culture is often associated with…  “High culture” – elite activities  The arts/fine museums  Classical music  Dinning at expensive restaurants with fine wine  Often seen as something either an individual has or doesn’t have  City dwellers may be seen as “cultured” whereas rural folk may be seen as “uncultured”

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Important to Remember…  All humans have culture!  Anthropologically speaking, all humans throughout the world are all “cultured”

39 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Earliest Definition of Culture  Edward Tylor – 1871  Culture “is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”

40 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 More Recent Definition of Culture  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) – 2002  Culture is the "set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs."

41 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 A Couple Simple Definitions of Culture  Culture is learned and shared ways of behaving & thinking (p. 6)  Culture is the way of life for a society

42 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Material and Nonmaterial Aspects of Culture  Culture consists of what humans have constructed, both material and nonmaterial  Material culture – tangible/physical aspects of culture (includes buildings, monuments, art, artifacts, technology, etc.)  Nonmaterial culture – intangible/non- physical aspects of culture (includes philosophy, ideas, beliefs, values, religion, music, rituals, etc.)

43 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Characteristics of Culture  Culture is learned  Therefore, culture is not the same as nature  Culture is symbolic / based on symbols  Culture is integrated  Culture is shared  Cultures are dynamic and change

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is learned…  All culture is learned rather than biologically inherited  The process through which culture is transmitted from one generation to the next is called enculturation  Both conscious (learned through direct teaching) and unconscious (learned through observation)

45 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 …therefore, culture is not the same as nature  All humans have basic biological needs (eating, sleeping, shelter, companionship, sex, etc.), but the ways in which these needs are satisfied varies from culture to culture  Culture shapes what people eat, how they eat, when they eat, and the meanings of food and eating  Hunters and gatherers would probably find frozen dinners appalling!  Culture shapes when to sleep, who sleeps with whom, how much sleep a person should have  Japan and emphasis on productivity – sleep deprivation  Where infants and children should sleep

46 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is Based on Symbols  A symbol is an object, word, or action with a culturally defined meaning (p. 14 & 15)  A symbol is often arbitrary – it stands for something else with which it has no necessary or natural relationship.  Often impossible to predict how a particular culture will symbolize something  Language is an important symbolic aspect of culture.

47 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this?

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? A dog

49 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? Are you sure?

50 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? Is it a perro? It is in the Spanish language!

51 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? Is it a hund? It is in the German language!

52 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? What does this symbolize?

53 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? What does this symbolize?

54 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? What does this symbolize?

55 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is this? What does this symbolize?

56 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 If you are hungry…  Are rats jumping in your stomach?  In Hindi (a language of India)  Or are you so hungry you can eat a horse?  In English

57 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is Based on Symbols Which are Mainly Arbitrary  In India, widows wear white clothing to mark their status  What do widows usually wear in the U.S.?

58 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is Integrated  Culture is holistic  Holism – the view that cultures are complex systems and one must study all their interconnected aspects in order to understand the whole culture (p. 10)  Must study social, political, economic, and religious practices and institutions in order to understand the whole culture

59 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is Shared  Culture is shared among a group of people  Cannot have a culture of 1!  Can be a group of large people making up a culture, but it can also be a small group of people making up a culture/subculture  Even a family can have customs, traditions, stories, and beliefs that bind them and give meaning to their life together

60 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture is Shared  Although multiple individuals share a common culture, each individual person may see that culture from a slightly different perspective  Individuals rarely experience the enculturation process in precisely the same way, nor do they perceive their reality in precisely identical fashion

61 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultures are Dynamic and Change  Cultures are dynamic systems that respond to a variety of internal and external forces  Cultures have always changed over time, although the speed at which they have changed varies  Today, globalization (the process of intensified global interconnectedness and movement of goods, information, and people) is a major force of contemporary cultural change

62 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

63 Cultures are Dynamic and Change  Cultural adaptation is just as important to human survival as biological adaptation is.  Adaptation is the process by which organisms adjust to the conditions of the locality in which they live  Making coats, building fires, constructing shelters, developing technology (cultural adaptations) have allowed humans to survive and expand into a variety of different environments

64 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultures are Dynamic and Change  While cultures must be flexible in order to meet new challenges and survive, not all culture change is been positive  Some culture change can be maladaptive and create new problems  Can you think of any examples?  What is adaptive in one context may be seriously maladaptive in another context  Behavior that is adaptive in the short run may be maladaptive in the long run

65 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultural Universals  A cultural universal is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures on the planet  Some examples of some cultural universals include…  communicating with a verbal language consisting of a limited set of sounds and grammatical rules for constructing sentences  using age and gender to classify people (e.g., teenager, senior citizen, woman, man)  classifying people based on marriage and descent relationships and having kinship terms to refer to them (e.g., wife, mother, uncle, cousin)  raising children in some sort of family setting

66 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultural Universals  having a sexual division of labor (e.g., men's work versus women's work)  having a concept of privacy  having rules to regulate sexual behavior  distinguishing between good and bad behavior  having some sort of body ornamentation  making jokes and playing games  having art  having a calendar/notion of time  some degree of ethnocentrism  While these cultural universals are present in all human societies, the particular ways in which these aspects are implemented are unique

67 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ideal Culture versus Real Culture  Ideal culture is what a society claims as their culture  Real culture is the actual culture the society has  Can you think of any examples in your culture of ideal culture versus real culture?

68 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Culture versus Society  Culture and society are not the same thing  Culture is learned and shared ways of behaving & thinking  Society is a group of interacting organisms  People are not the only animals that have societies  Hives of bees, a group of ants, schools of fish, flocks of birds, and lion prides are all societies  These animals may have complex social behaviors and interactions, but they do not have culture  In human societies, culture and society are inextricably connected  Without a society we could not have culture  Many members of a society often share the same culture

69 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Subcultures/Microcultures  A subculture/microculture is culture within a larger culture  A subculture/microculture shares cultural aspects with the larger culture of which it is a part  Subcultures/microcultures may have different cultural aspects…  without a hierarchical relationship  For example, German Americans versus Italian Americans  or with a hierarchical relationship  For example, Caucasian Americans versus Native Americans

70 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Microcultures A individual may be a member of several microcultures Class “ Race ” and Ethnicity Gender Age Institutions (hospitals, universities, prisons) Indigeneity

71 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

72 Microculture: Poverty and Social Class  Worldwide, rates of poverty have not declined in recent times  Disparities between the wealthy and the poor have increased – they share very different subcultures

73 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What are some of the functions of culture?

74 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What are some of the functions of culture?  Culture provides the knowledge and skills to be able to effectively provide for the basic needs of a society  Food, shelter, etc.  Culture facilitates social interactions  Provides a social structure for reproduction and support  Enables us to communicate with each other through language  Gives us standards for distinguishing between what is right and wrong (norms) and what is beautiful and ugly (values)  It makes it possible to anticipate how others in our society are likely to respond to our actions  Offers ways to pass on knowledge and enculturate new members of the society

75 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What are some of the functions of culture?  Culture provides for the psychological and emotional needs of its members  Through art, music, myth, religion, etc. culture gives the members of the society a means for self-expression and understand one’s place in the world  Ideally, culture functions to satisfy the physical, social, and psychological needs and expectations of the people in that society

76 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Three Major Theoretical Debates in Cultural Anthropology  Is human behavior the result of biology or culture?  Is human behavior the result of people’s thoughts or the material aspects of their lives?  Is human behavior the result of free will or larger forces beyond our control?

77 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Is human behavior the result of biology or culture?  Biological Determinists  Human behavior is biologically based  Seek to explain why people do and think what they do by considering biological factors such as people’s genes and hormones (p. 20)  Freeman on Samoan youth (p. 22)  Cultural Constructionists  Human behavior is culturally based  Human behavior and ideas are best explained as products of culturally shaped learning (p. 21)  Mead on Samoan youth (p. 22)  Many cultural anthropologists today tend to lean more toward the cultural constructionist camp.

78 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Is human behavior the result of people’s thoughts or the material aspects of their lives?  Interpretive Anthropologists (Interpretivists)  Human behavior/culture can be understood by studying what is in people’s minds and thoughts – what people think about, their explanations of their lives, and the symbols that are important to them (p. 21)  Hindus do not eat cows because cows are sacred and it is a sin to kill and eat them (p. 21)  Cultural Materialists  Human behavior/culture can be understood by studying people’s material aspects of life – the natural environment and how people make a living within particular environments  Hindus do not eat cows and they are sacred because living cows are economically important – they plow fields, their excrement is used for fertilizer, etc. (p. 21)  Some cultural anthropologists today are strong interpretivists, whereas others are strong cultural materialists. Others take a middle-of-the-road view.

79 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Cultural materialist view of the world…

80 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Is human behavior the result of free will or larger forces beyond our control?  Individual Agency  Emphasize that human behavior and thoughts are largely based on individuals’ free will, or agency (p. 21)  Poverty studies – show how even in extreme instances of poverty individuals act to change their situation as best they can (p. 21)  Structurism  Argue that individual free will is an illusion and that human behavior and thoughts are conditioned, or structured, by larger forces such as the economy, social and political organization, and ideological systems (p. 21)  Poverty studies – show that the poor are trapped by large and powerful forces that provide them little room for agency (p. 21)  An increasing number of cultural anthropologists seek to blend a structural perspective with attention to agency  Think of the movie “The Matrix”!

81 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Nacerima  What are your impressions of this article?  If the book and I had not told you this article was about American culture, do you think you would have recognized this as American culture? Why or why not?  How does it feel to you to look at American culture more “objectively,” as an outside observer?  Do you think this article is an accurate reflection of American culture? Why or why not?

82 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ju/’hoansi  Summarize some of the main points of this section.  Discuss some ways the Ju/’hoansi have adapted to their environment and social living. What special skills or cultural behaviors have they developed over thousands of years to help them adapt?  In what ways is Ju/’hoansi culture different from your own culture?  In what ways is Ju/’hoansi culture similar to your own culture?  What surprises you most about the Ju/’hoansi culture?  What do you think life would be like as a hunter/gatherer?  Do you think the Ju/’hoansi will be able to integrate their belief that no one should be denied the basic necessities of life with the demands of their modern situation? Why or why not?

83 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Example of indigeneity: the Ju/’hoansi of Namibia and Botswana

84 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Original Affluent Society  In 1966 Marshall Sahlins challenged the popular view of hunter-gatherers living lives "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short," as Thomas Hobbes had put it in  According to Sahlins, ethnographic data indicated that hunter-gatherers worked far fewer hours and enjoyed more leisure than typical members of industrial society, and they still ate well. Their "affluence" came from the idea that they are satisfied with very little in the material sense.


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