Presentation on theme: "Source Domains in Conceptualizations of the State in Chinese and Hungarian Political Discourse Danyang Kou."— Presentation transcript:
Source Domains in Conceptualizations of the State in Chinese and Hungarian Political Discourse Danyang Kou
Ⅰ. Introduction It is a joint research done by native speakers of Chinese and Hungarian language A simple literature review shows that present researches on political discourse focus on the text and talk of professional politicians or political institutions.
Ⅰ. Introduction 1. Target of the research: text speeches of a Chinese president (2004-2012) and several Hungarian presidents (1999- 2010) who were in power around the same period of time
2. Aims of the research: It is a comparative study to 1) identify source domains used as vehicles to understand the concept of the state in Chinese and Hungarian political discourse; 4) hope to have a better understanding of people’s conceptual mechanism in political discourse. 2) discover the similarities and differences in the conceptualizations of the state in both languages; 3) analyze the functions of culture in shaping people’s conceptualizations of the state
3. Theoretical Framework 1). The research is done from the cognitive linguistic perspective with a focus on state metaphors. 2). Lakoff & Johnson: define the essence of metaphor; metaphor is not only in language but in thought and action 3). Zoltan Kovecses: provides a more detailed explanation about metaphor as cross domain mappings, and establishes the relations between culture, language and mind.
4). Elena Semino & Charteris-Black: explore the functions of metaphor in discourse; metaphor plays a central role in politics because it can achieve the goal of persuasion. 5). Lakoff: in Moral Politics, Politics, the Strict Father model and the Nurturant Parent model were set up to reason American political reasoning. We would like to test whether the models apply to Chinese and Hungarian political thinking.
6). Andreas Musolff: body politic 7). Ning Yu: researches on relationship between metaphor, body and culture in Chinese language and comparative studies with English.
II. Methodology Corpus research: yield statistic findings Introspection and rational reasoning: yield theoretical analysis 1. Chinese corpus: Government’s annual work reports from 2004 to 2012Government’s annual work reports from 2004 to 2012 About 175,000 Chinese charactersAbout 175,000 Chinese characters Data source: www.gov.cnData source: www.gov.cn 2. Hungarian corpus: Government’s year-summary speeches from 1999 to 2010Government’s year-summary speeches from 1999 to 2010 About 710,000 charactersAbout 710,000 characters Data source: prime ministers’ personal websitesData source: prime ministers’ personal websites
“ 国家 (guo jia)” was used as key word in Chinese corpus “ 国家 (guo jia)” was used as key word in Chinese corpus All references made to refer to the state were noted in Hungarian corpus All references made to refer to the state were noted in Hungarian corpus All the text were closely examined All the text were closely examined The list of source domains of the state was presented The list of source domains of the state was presented The results from both corpora were then compared and discussed in detail The results from both corpora were then compared and discussed in detail 3. Research Procedure:
III. Research Findings Chinese: The formation of the key word “ 国 家 (guo jia)”(means country, nation in English) indicates family as a source domain of the state. Appeared 248 times in the corpus. A common metaphor in Chinese. No indication about any aspect of family life. 1. Family —State is family Hungarian: No family metaphor in the corpus. Not prevail in Hungarian political discourse. A common metaphor not widely used in Hungarian.
2. Home —State is home Chinese: No appearance in the corpus. Exists in Chinese language. A common metaphor in Chinese. Hungarian: Appeared 41 times in the corpus. It is used more frequently nowadays than in the past. Right-wing party used this metaphor more often than left-wing party in the corpus.
Chinese: A very common metaphor Has a high frequency Human behaviors & attributes were mapped onto the target “state” Human body parts or organs did not appear in the metaphorical mappings From the human roles the state can play in the corpus, a combination of both the Strict Father model and the Nurturant Parent model is applied in Chinese political discourse. 3. Person —State is person
Hungarian: A very common metaphor Frequent in both right-wing and left- wing party’s speeches Specified as an athlete and a steward Human behaviors & attributes were mapped onto the target “state” Human body parts or organs did not appear in the metaphorical mappings Neither the Strict Father model nor the Nurturant Parent model dominates in Hungarian political discourse.
4. Object— State is object Hungarian: Unnatural in conceptualization Too general and vague in language No appearance in the corpus Chinese: No specification of the object A common general metaphor Appear one or two times every year in the corpus
5. Plant — State is plant Hungarian: No appearance in the corpus Exists in the Hungarian language Chinese: A common metaphor High frequency in the corpus Two phrases in the life circle of a plant were highlighted: grow & flourish
6. Building—State is building Hungarian: A very common metaphor. Appeared both with general verb “build” and with specifications about what kind of building the state is compared to. Chinese: A very common metaphor. Appeared two to five times in all work reports with verbs “build”, “establish” or “construct”.
7. Vehicle—State is vehicle Hungarian: A very common metaphor High frequency in the corpus References were made to all kinds of specific vehicles, such as ship, rocket, car, bus, and train Chinese: A comparatively novel metaphor No appearance in the corpus
IV: Comparison & Discussion Compare and analyze the corpora results. Political discourse, as a part of social practice, is permeated throughout with cultural routines, beliefs and ideologies. Culture’s role in shaping conceptual metaphors and the choices of the source domains. Discuss in detail about the reasons why some source domains are shared by both languages, some are not. Re-examine Lakoff’s political models and Musolff’s theory of “body politic”. Note the problems and limitations in the research.
IV: Conclusion 1.Conceptual 1.Conceptual metaphor is an important tool for both Chinese and Hungarian people to understand the concept of state. 2.State 2.State metaphors ate widely used in political discourse. 3.The 3.The potential universality of bodily experience explains the shared source domains of state metaphors in two languages. 4.Culture 4.Culture does influence people’s choices on source domains of state metaphors. 5.Cultural 5.Cultural preference is one of the reasons for the differences in source domains between Chinese and Hungarian language. 6.Support 6.Support Lakoff, Semino and Yu’s researches, and the limitations of our research can be improved by future studies on the topic.