Presentation on theme: "EUROPE In the early Modern Era . . Illustrating some of the key Acorn points."— Presentation transcript:
1 EUROPEIn the early Modern Era . . Illustrating some of the key Acorn points
2 Starting with the ____________ a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in_______ in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The availability of paper and the invention of the p_________ ________ (moveable type) sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century.Renaissance, reformation, scientific rev enlightenmentRichest of the rich________A system of thought that centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth although that does NOT mean non-reilgiousJohn Green:
3 the RenaissanceAs merchants’ profits increased and governments collected more taxes, funding for the visual and performing arts, even for popular audiences, increased. Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the world. (such as Renaissance art in Europe . . .)Literacy expanded accompanied by the proliferation of popular authors, literary forms and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia. (such as Shakespeare, Cervantes
4 Realism & Expression First nudes since classical times. Expulsion from the Garden, Masaccio, 1427
5 2. Perspective First use of linear perspective! Perspective! The TrinityMasaccio1427Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!Perspective!First use of linear perspective!What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
6 The “Classical Pose” Medici “Venus” (1c) 3. ClassicismGreco-Roman influence.Humanism.Individualism free standing figures.Symmetry/BalanceThe “Classical Pose” Medici “Venus” (1c)
7 4. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures The Dreyfus Madonna with the PomegranateLeonardo da Vinci1469The figure as architecture!
10 Art and Patronagethe support and consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status
11 Vitruvian ManLeonardo da Vinci1492The L’uomo universale
12 The Renaissance “Man”Broad knowledge about many things in different fields.Deep knowledge/skill in one area.Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.
13 The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 verticalhorizontalPerspective!
15 The Popes as Patrons of the Arts The PietaMichelangelo Buonarroti1499marble
16 The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512
17 The School of Athens Raphael, 1510 -11 Da VinciRaphaelMichelangelo
18 The School of Athens – Raphael, details Plato: looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm].Aristotle: looks to this earth [the here and now].
19 Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras Averroes: Muslim scholar/philospoher born in Cordoba—12th century,Hypatia of Alexandria (pronounced /haɪˈpeɪʃə/) (Greek: Ὑπατία; born between AD 350 and 370 – 415) was a Greek scholar from Alexandria in Egypt, considered the first notable woman in mathematics, who also taught philosophy and astronomy. She lived in Roman Egypt, and was killed by a Coptic Christian mob who blamed her for religious turmoilPythagoras
21 ma·don·na /məˈdänə/ The Virgin Mary. (n) A picture, statue, or medallion of the Virgin Mary, typically depicted seated and holding the infant Jesus.(d)ma·don·na /məˈdänə/
22 Why first in the Italian _____- _______? $$$$$ You have to have it to be a patron of artAnd why $$$$$$$? Because each city state specialized in the production of a good andG__________ and especially V_______ became stinking rich because of trade with the O__________ empire.And what centuries primarily?Genoa and Venice ottoman15th and 16th
23 Development and interaction of __________ Other ideas regarding theme 2Development and interaction of __________ReligionsBelief systems, philosophies, and ideologiesScience and technologyThe arts and architecture
24 Martin Luther and the Reformation The practice of Christianity continued to spread throughout the world and was increasingly diversified by the process of diffusion and the Reformation.1517; Germany
26 Luther Quotes“We are saved by faith alone, but the faith that saves is never alone.” ― Martin Luther“If you want to change the world, pick up your pen and write.” ― Martin LutherFrom book: cause beneffited from printing press –moveable type in europe in mid 15th century (china 1300s)
27 COUNTER REFORMATION Jesuits https://www.seattleu.edu/jesuit_tradition/ The Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, was held from 1545 to 1563 in the town of Trent in northern Italy. The council responded to the Protestant Reformation and defined the dogmas of the church. Italian Renaissance painter Titian attended the council in about 1555 and recorded his impressions in this painting.Jesuitshttps://www.seattleu.edu/jesuit_tradition/
29 Where were Christian missionary efforts the most successful in the 15th and 16th century and what branch was it?
30 Prevailing world religions today . . . . Prevailing world religions today
31 In the early years of the 16th century, to combat the rising tide of religious unorthodoxy, the Pope gave Cardinal Ximinez of Spain leave to move without let or hindrance throughout the land, in a reign of violence, terror and torture that makes a smashing film. This was the____________ _____________History of the worldMonty Python:
32 re·con·nais·sance also re·con·nois·sance (r -k n -s ns, -z ns ) Remarkable new transoceanic maritime reconnaissance occurred in this period.European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic and Asian worlds, and included the production of new tools, (such as astrolabe or revised maps) innovations in ship designs (such as caravels) and an improved understanding of global wind and currents patterns, all of which made transoceanic travel and trade possibleSee:re·con·nais·sance also re·con·nois·sance (r -k n -s ns, -z ns )n.An inspection or exploration of an area, especially one made to gather military information.
37 Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: early 16th Century
38 .Portuguese development of a school for navigation led to increased travel to and trade with West ________and resulted in the construction of a global ________-_________ empireAfricaHenry the Navigator leading Vasco de Gama, Magellan, and other Portuguese explores
39 Spanish sponsorship of the first Columbian and subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific dramatically increased European interest in transoceanic travel and trade.Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing and settlements continued and spurred European searches for multiple routes to Asia.
40 The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian Exchange. Biological pipelineOpened up ecnomic opps for E
41 Ooh ahh the CE illustrates which theme? ___________________ DemographyDiseaseMigrationtechnologyInteraction between humans and the environment
42 stateAnd on to another theme: __________-building, expansion and conflictPolitical structures and forms of governanceEmpiresNations and nationalismRevolts and revolutionRegional, transregional, and global structures and organizationsas an institutional structure charged with exercising authority within a definable jurisdictional purview (which is often territorial in naturegenerally used to refer to the political powerexercised over a defined geographic territory through a set of public institutionsState-building, expansion, and conflict
43 European states, including Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France and Britain, established new ______________ empires in the Americas.maritime
45 By the way. Russia is creating a _______ based empire By the way Russia is creating a _______ based empire Using in part tax farminglandRulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial expansion.
46 Tax farming: assigning the responsibility for tax revenue collection to private citizens or groups historical examples in the early modern era: Ottoman, Mughal, Qing, France, Spain, Holland, England and Russiaan important step in the development of state revenues and economic growth by providing a method for collecting taxes across a large area without the need for a tax-collecting b______________Bureacracy in France from the 13th century and was also practiced widely in Holland, Spain, and England. It was one of the most important sources for the primitive accumulation of capital. As capitalism developed, tax farming was preserved in a distinctive form in 20th-century Italy, where private and savings banks collected certain taxes. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, forms of tax farming were used for collecting tax arrears in the USA. Tax farming was widely used in the Ottoman Empire beginning in the late 16th or early 17th century; it was abolished in It was also widely practiced in Iran from approximately the tenth century to the 1930’s and in India from the 13th or 14th century to the 19th century.In Russia, tax farming (otkup) was introduced in the late 15th or early 16th century. It was used especially for customs duties and salt and liquor revenues. Tax farming to collect liquor revenues was introduced in the 16th century and assumed the greatest importance during the 18th and 19th centuries. Treasury revenues from the liquor tax constituted more than 40 percent of the income from all taxes in the state budget. In 1863 tax farming to collect liquor revenues was abolished and replaced by an excise tax.See also
47 The Ya'ruba and the expulsion of the Portuguese Competition over ________ routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean and ________in the Caribbean), state rivalries (such as the Thirty Years War or the Ottoman-Safavid conflict), and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.The Ya'ruba and the expulsion of the PortugueseIn the early 16th century the Portuguese trading empire sought to extend its influence and reduce Oman’s control over the thriving Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean routes. Portuguese troops invaded Oman and captured some of the coastal areas, occupying them for up to 150 years before being defeated by Sultan bin Saif Al Ya’rubi.During the Ya’ruba period (1624 – 1744) Oman entered an era of prosperity at home and abroad, and many of the Sultanate’s historic buildings and forts date from this time.Trade piracy
49 significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion The Thirty Years WarThe Thirty Year Wars describes a massive continental conflict between European states motivated by both political and economic reasons but complicated by ___________ differences. They were the most destructive European conflict before the 20th centuryCulmination of Religious Wars: HRE tried to force subjects to return to Catholicism, becomes most destructive E conflict b-4 20th c. –so much devastationdescribes a massive continental conflict between European states motivated by both political and economic reasons but complicated by ___________ differences
50 Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Aka Peace of WB of P: one gets too strong Others form coality against itEnded 30 Years War; Dissolution of Holy Roman EmpireSet foundation for sovereign competing nation states (NOT imperial or papal) and principle of Balance of PowerPrinciple of religious determination for each state
51 EffectsEuropeans perfect military (b/c of competition) whereas China, India and Islamic lands had no such incentives to improve militaryEurope is a land of many sovereign states not a land based empireBalance of Power as a principle in inter-state relations
53 more on Political Developments Increasing c_________ of government in W Europe as monarchs in Spain, England and France curb power of nobility (NOT Italy and Germany) and develop REGIONAL land based states and start on some maritime empiresDo I say Europe has greatest devel in this era?centraizationEurope in 1600The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zamindars in the Mughal Empire, nobility in Europe or daimyo in Japan) fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.
54 Absolutism vs Constitutionalism ________-: no room for any one else in making law and policylegitimized by “divine right” deriving his right to rule directly from the will of God.The king is not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm; to rebel is blasphemyFrance, Spain, Austria, Prussia and RussiaRebellion is blasphemy louis epitomyLouis XIVL’ etat c’est moi!
55 A visual display of political power VersaillesHow does this help the sun king control the nobles?Hall of Mirrors
57 .Nobles gain absolute power over serfs in Russia
58 ________ States Vs . . . . England and the Netherlands Puts limits on governments)Allows merchants freedom from govtRecognized individual rightsRepresentative institutionsConstitutionalNot necessarily written Constitutions (neither E nor N have)(goes back to Magna Carta in 1215 England)
59 Theme 4: Creation, expansion, and interaction of ____________ systems Agricultural and pastoral productionTrade and commerceLabor SystemsIndustrializationCapitalism and socialismeconomic
60 Share of the World's GDP, 1AD - 2008 Historically, the world's balance of wealth undertook two major shifts, one triggered by the industrial revolution (early 19th century) and the other, unfolding, triggered by globalization (late 20th century).Source: Data compiled by A. Maddison, University of Groningen.Prior to the industrial revolution, the economic size of a nation was directly proportional to its population, which was dominantly rural. Agricultural surpluses permitted an initial division of labor and was used to support various crafts, administrative and service activities. The capacity to grow food was therefore the foundation of wealth of nations, since the greater the food surplus the larger the potential base for non-agricultural activities. Since China and India were mostly relying on rice cultivation (the most productive form of agriculture) supported by extensive irrigation systems, they achieved early in history the world's largest populations and correspondingly the largest GDP. They jointly accounted for 50% of the world's GDP up to the early 19th century. This situation would endure until the industrial revolution. The mechanization of production brought by the industrial revolution broke the relationship between population and economic output.The mechanization of production brought by the industrial revolution broke the relationship between population and economic output. More for later units
61 Europe in the world economy far more important role than earlier -but did not dominate—no H_________________.established settler colonies in the__________, but most of the western hemisphere was beyond their control until 19th century;established a series of __________ posts and the colony of Angola in Africa BUT with rarely had direct influence beyond the coastlines.In SE Asia, Spain conquers the ____________ and the _________ control Indonesian islands,but posed no threat at all to the powerful imperial states that ruled China, India, southwest Asia; and Anatolia or JapanHegemony Amerisas trading
62 European merchants’ role in Asian trade was characterized mostly by transporting goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia or the Indian Ocean region.
64 The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered European ___________companies who took _________from S_________ colonies in the ______________ to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic markets, but regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia using established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping services developed by European merchants.Commercialization and the creation of a global economy were intimately connected to new global circulation of silver from the Americas.Monopoly silver spanish americas
65 Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new methods used by European r________ to control their domestic and colonial economies and by European m____________ compete against each other in global trade.MercantilismEach nation must try to achieve economic self-sufficiency.Emphasizes the importance of gold and silver holdings as a sign of a nation's wealth and powerled to policies designed to obtain precious metalsEs want colonies so they can control exports from colonies and force colonies to import mfg good from themCalls for government regulationinfluential in Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuryBut it justifies much more gov’t interventionRulers merchantsmetals to ensure "favourable" trade balances (an excess of exports over imports)
66 Important New Form of Commercial Organization; _________Stock Co The shipyard of the Dutch East India Company in Amsterdam, circa 1750.Joint monopolyDutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North JakartaSince merchants were influential in E and D states, not surprising most favorable to capitalists—but note GOVT grants _________ so NOT total free trade
68 Early CapitalismKey to capitalism is _____________ own the means of productionThey operate in a ____________ market—competition and laws of supply and demand reignIndividual rights .. . are protected by the govtIt is NOT MercantilismIt IS Adam Smith . . .Means of production: land, machinery, tools, equiptment, buildings, workshps rew materioalThey hire and make econ dec
69 The “Putting-Out” System: 17th and 18th centuries To avoid guildsUnrinished materils like aw wool go to rurla hoseholds . . Entrepredneurs than pick up finsihed goods and sell on market0“Proto industrialization”done by capitalist entrepreneurs to avoid to avoid ___________ which were inflexible and did NOT maximize individual profit making
70 Supplemental Income Cottage Industries: “Putting-Out” System
71 Emancipation of the Peasantry to 1812 No more serfs in western e
72 Population Growth Am food crops b/c of CE, esp the: Better nourishment, means less susceptible to diseasesBirth rates not really up but decreasing mortality leads to pop growthPop growth leads to urbanizationAmerican foods (such as potatoes, maize or manioc) became staple crops in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefitted nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.
73 SOCIALCustom of young men and women choosing their own spouses starts and affection between_______ and _________Also get the emergence of the ________FAMILY mom, dad and the kidsParents and childrenAs opposed to extended familyThe concept of the nuclear family was first noticed in Western Europe in the 17th century. With the emergence of proto-industrialization and early capitalism, the nuclear family became a financially viable social unitSome notable gender and family restructuring occurred including the demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trades. (as well as the smaller size of European families)
75 European Urbanization Still Most people live in rural areas
76 Intellectual Where do we start? This artistic representation of the geocentric model shows signs of the zodiac and the solar system with world at centre.A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
77 1633 trial of Galileo Galilei geocentric view that the Earth is at the centre of the universe. After 1610, when he began publicly supporting the heliocentric view, which placed the Sun at the centre of the universe, he met with bitter opposition from some philosophers and clerics, and two of the latter eventually denounced him to the Roman Inquisition early in Although he was cleared of any offence at that time, the Catholic Church nevertheless condemned heliocentrism as "false and contrary to Scripture" in February 1616, and Galileo was warned to abandon his support for it—which he promised to do. When he later defended his views in his most famous work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in 1632, he was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy," forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.1633 trial of Galileo Galilei
79 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris Scientific Revolution“prove it or lose it”reason plus proof“16th and 17th century: period of empirical advances associated with the development of theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Agesuse of observation and mathematics to collect and analyze dataThe Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris
80 Effects of the Scientific Revolution “Science: The New Authority” Created an interest in exploringmost affected formal intellectual life, but also led to changes in popular outlookNew Attitudes: skepticism about beliefs held on old authority; new confidence in the powers of reason; “Can do” positive approach about tackling problemsNot anti-religious; deism developsScience the new authority is section heading in stearns
81 “Enlightenment: Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century: was an cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that applied methods to scientific revolution to reform societyReason & LogicPositive view of progressNot anti-religiouselitePositive view
82 Enlightenment philosophers Hobbes, Thomas The Leviathan Life in a state of nature is nasty, brutish and short:John Locke ( )Two Treatises of Government, 1690Social Contract; consent of the governedNatural rightsGovt is to protect property
83 Enlightenment—good government—Philosophers asked: what is life like for humans in the state of nature?What is the purpose of government,Then they defined the “social contract”What do people give up under the social contract?What does the government give in return?Under what conditions can someone rebel (if ever)?The notion of the social contract implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law. It can also be thought of as an agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed.Social contract theory formed a central pillar in the historically important notion that legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed
87 Gutenberg: http://www. youtube. com/watch Henry the 8th:
88 Developments Which Spur European interest in exploring Crusades wow cool stuff but we want it directly--by-pass intermediaries to get to AsiaRenaissance curiosity about other lands and peoples.Reformation refugees & missionaries.Consolidation of nation states: Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue—land for cash cropsScientific Revolution: Technological advances, new interests.Get a sense of timing hereObviously reformation won’t spur Spanish state interest in exploring
90 The Commercial Revolution a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism from the 16th century until the early 18th century.PRECEDES Industrial REVincrease in the buying and selling of goods, a surge in overseas trade, the appearance of the chartered company, acceptance of the principles of mercantilism, the creation of a money economy, increased economic specialization, and the establishment of such new institutions as the state bank, and the futures market.This is not not not the IR