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Invasive Species in British Columbia: Introduction An Online Course for BC Parks Staff, Volunteers and Contractors.

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1 Invasive Species in British Columbia: Introduction An Online Course for BC Parks Staff, Volunteers and Contractors

2 Welcome! Course Goal: provide an introduction to invasive species in BC, explore their impacts, highlight key species for BC Parks regions, and learn how to report invasive species. Audience: BC Parks staff, volunteers & contractors Important eyes “on-the-ground” preventing detecting, and reporting invasive species Know the landscape, can detect invasive species before they spread - Visitors in parks are vectors of invasive species spread - Parks can be sites for illegal dumping of yard waste, unwanted pets

3 Course Objectives Provide general information on invasive species and their characteristics Highlight impacts of invasive species with emphasis on Parks Examine their main entry pathways Focus on specific invasive species for BC Parks regions Emphasize prevention, regulations and reporting tools

4 Course Procedure This course contains information, definitions, photos and regional lists of invasive species in BC The course should take about an hour to complete, and you can move between the slides at your own speed There are questions throughout the material to help assess your progress, and several options to test your learning at the end of the course, including classroom discussions (if applicable) and an online survey. Thank you for your interest in invasive species prevention!

5 Section 1: Invasive Species: An Overview This section of the course outlines some general background on invasive species: Definitions – what is native, non-native and invasive General information on invasive species Key characteristics – the features that make a species invasive M. Haffke Orange Hawkweed

6 1.1 What is a Native Species? A native species is one that naturally occurs in an area: a plant that has lived and evolved in a certain place for a long time, is part of the natural ecosystem are adapted to local conditions, co-evolved with other species, predators, diseases, & climate factors Kinnickinnick, a native ground cover plant. N.Bakker

7 Question: What are some other terms that are similar to “invasive species”? Butterfly Bush J. Leekie Daphne D. Hanna


9 1.2 What Are Alien or Non-Native Species? Animals and plants from other parts of the world that do not naturally occur in an area, and were likely brought by humans, either accidentally or intentionally. Also known as "non-native", “introduced” and "exotic" Not evolved as part of the native ecosystem; no natural predators or diseases to keep them in balance Dandelion J. Leekie

10 Non Native but Non-Invasive Species Not all alien species are invasive: many ornamental plants won’t survive outside of gardens tomatoes and wheat are beneficial food resources brown trout and ring-necked pheasant from Eurasia are prized by anglers and hunters However, others, such as the Asian long-horned beetle and the gypsy moth, have destroyed countless hectares of forest Brown Trout Wikipedia Ring-necked Pheasant Wikipedia

11 1.3 What is an Invasive Species? Invasive species are non-native species that cause social, economic and/or environmental harm, and can spread rapidly to new areas, and: move into a habitat and completely out-compete native vegetation: no predators and diseases to keep them under control often grow faster (earlier in the spring) and aggressively N. Page Himalayan Knotweed

12 1.3 What is an Invasive Species? E.g. Leafy spurge contains a latex sap that causes blisters to livestock, humans and wildlife E.g. Knotweeds grow very rapidly along bodies of water, shade out other plants reduce access for recreational activities, cause erosion and replace essential native vegetation in riparian areas Knotweed Leafy Spurge R. Mueller L. Scott

13 Invasive Species are Diverse There is a wide range of invasive species, including plants, insects, fish, mammals and birds in BC: Insects (e.g. Asian Gypsy Moth, European Fire Ant) Fish (e.g. Small-mouth Bass and Yellow Perch) European Fire Ant S. Buaer Yellow Perch Wikipedia

14 Invasive Species are Diverse Amphibians (E.g. American Bullfrog) Mammals (E.g. Eastern Grey Squirrel; Nutria) Birds (E.g. Starlings) American Bullfrog S. Price Starling Wikipedia

15 Activity Please define these terms generally and give one example of: Native Species Alien or Introduced Species Invasive Species BC Parks

16 DEFINE THESE TERMS Native Species Alien or Introduced Species Invasive Species

17 For Review Some Definitions: Native Species: One that has evolved naturally in an area, with no human intervention Alien or Introduced Species: Does not occur naturally in an area; usually brought by humans either on purpose or by accident L. Beattie Common Tansy removal

18 For Review Some Definitions: Invasive Species: a species that disrupts an ecosystem due to the lack of natural controls such as predators and diseases Noxious Weeds: a plant species that has been identified in the BC Weed Control Act and is labeled as dangerous to crops, animals, natural habitats and/or humans. For humans, usually they are non- native plants that grow rapidly and cause injury through contact or ingestion Field Scabious J. Leekie

19 Activity Try to determine if the following species are: Native / Non-Native, Non-Invasive / Invasive Click through slides for the answer!








27 Scotch Broom




31 Smallmouth Bass




35 Yellow Flag Iris

36 1.4 Some Characteristics of Invasive Species There are four main distinguishing features of invasive plants: 1.prolific seed producers 2.their seeds spread easily 3.they establish quickly 4.they lack natural predators E. Coombs Scotch Broom

37 1. Can be prolific seed producers/ reproducers: Some weeds produce thousands of seeds per plant: E.g. Purple loosestrife can produce over 300, 000 seeds/yr E.g. Gorse seeds have a hard coat and can persist in the soil for 25 to 40 years E.g. Zebra mussels can produce up to 1 million eggs a year. Purple Loosestrife L. Haugen

38 2. Seeds spread easily and effectively Hounds-tongue has burrs: hooked seeds become attached to animals, vehicles and clothing Diffuse knapweed produces 18,000 seeds a year and forms tumbleweeds Leafy spurge seeds float and remain viable for years L. Scott Hounds-Tongue burrs on hiking boots

39 3. Can quickly establish and thrive on disturbed, open ground, spreading and displacing native plants; Some plants release toxins in the soil that prevent other plants from growing: Eg. Spotted knapweed (toxin - catechin) Roots or other plant pieces can sprout new shoots: e.g. Tansy ragwort and Dalmation toadflax will sprout from roots, root pieces and crown buds B. Stewart Spotted Knapweed

40 4. Usually lack natural pathogens or predators: Don’t have predators or diseases here that control populations in their countries of origin. E.g. Purple loosestrife has over 120 species of insects that prey on it in its natural habitat. In BC we have bio-control on Purple loosestrife and it has established well E.g. Sulphur cinquefoil and orange hawkweed are not palatable, so not grazed by livestock or wildlife and spread widely, displacing other forage plants B. Stewart Sulphur Cinquefoil

41 Detection In a park setting, look for monoculture, or a lot of one species of plant in an area; often these are invasive species that have spread and displaced the native plants, reducing the biodiversity of an area Japanese Knotweed T. Heutte

42 Question Follow the links below to photos and description of a widespread invasive plant and its seeds. Describe how each of the four main characteristics of invasive species show up in this selected species, and allow it to spread and thrive. Hound’s Tongue L. Scott 1.prolific seed producers / reproducers 2.seeds spread easily and effectively 3.can quickly establish and thrive on disturbed open ground, spreading and displacing native species 4.usually lack natural pathogens or predators

43 CHARACTERISTICSDESCRIBE HOW THIS APPLIES Prolific seed producers / reproducers Seeds spread easily and effectively Can quickly establish and thrive on disturbed open ground, spreading and displacing native species Usually lack natural pathogens or predators

44 Invasive Species Impacts Invasive plant infestations can: disrupt natural ecosystem processes alter soil chemistry, preventing the regrowth of native plants and economic crops affect wildlife habitat and reduce forage availability increase soil erosion poison livestock and wildlife increase the risk of wildfires interfere with forest regeneration cause allergic reactions and severe skin abrasions and burns

45 Section 2. Invasive Species Impacts In this section, we will highlight the rationale for why invasive species are such a problem for BC, and the importance of identifying, monitoring and managing them.

46 2.1 Economic Impacts Agriculture and Ranching Invasive plants cause serious problems. They reduce crop quality by: replacing target crops tainting crops with spines, toxic plants and inedible forage some such as tansy ragwort and hound’s tongue can poison livestock Burdock burrs on livestock L. Scott

47 2.1 Economic Impacts Additional costs can include: treating animals who ingest toxic plants or have burs or spines in their bodies invasive species such as starlings that consume crops a reduction in land values; e.g. Knotweeds, European fire ant Japanese knotweed grows through fence from neighbouring property. C&F

48 Question: How much money do you think BC loses each year in forage and crop losses due to invasive plants? a) $1 million b) $20 million c) $35 million d) $50 million e) $75 million Field Scabious NWIPC ANSWER: Estimates indicate that up to $50 million is lost in BC every year, due to crop and forage losses

49 Economic Impacts: Forestry Invasive plants impact forest regeneration activities: invade a disturbed area quickly, limiting natural regeneration out-compete tree seedlings in reforestation areas make reforestation an expensive challenge Some invasive plants (e.g. gorse on Vancouver Island) are very flammable - pose a major fire hazard English Ivy D. Moorhead

50 Economic Impacts: Transportation The Ministry of Transportation invests $1.3 Million each year on invasive plant control! Additional costs include: cutting back invasive plants to re-establish sightlines condemning gravel pits infested with invasive plants repairing roads from knotweed damage: roots can grow up to 20m from the parent plant—growing underneath a highway to become established on the other side! Japanese knotweed CABI

51 Question What are some ways that roads and transportation corridors contribute to the spread of invasive plants? a) Plants spread and thrive on disturbed ground along roadsides b) Vehicles transport seeds and plants along corridors c) Wind blows and spreads seeds down roadway corridors d) People and animals travel on roadways, spreading seeds and plant material e) Vehicle movement blows seeds and plant materials f) All of the above Alex Fraser Research Forest Oxeye Daisy f) ALL OF THE ABOVE

52 Question How much do you think it costs Canada as a whole in lost revenue each year, due to invasive species? $1 billion $5 billion $10 billion $20 billion $35 billion ANSWER: Very hard to calculate—according to Environment Canada, the estimated annual lost revenue caused by just 16 invasive species is between $13 and $35 billion dollars

53 2.2 Environmental Impacts Invasive species have many serious, far-reaching environmental impacts An estimated 16% of endangered plants in Canada are in competition with invasive species L. Scott Diffuse Knapweed

54 2.2 Environmental Impacts Invasive plants reduce biodiversity: out-compete native plants for water, nutrients, and space and can alter soil chemical composition so that native species are unable to grow there alter habitats and displace wildlife disrupt ecosystems: when plants change, food webs change non-native, invasive grasses have been linked to altered grass- fire cycles worldwide Spotted knapweed in Glacier National Park eliminated seven rare and uncommon plant species in 3 years.

55 Reduce Water Quality Invasive species can reduce water quality through increasing soil erosion, sedimentation, shading of riparian areas, and degrading fish habitat. E.g. Didymo or “Rock Snot” is a fresh water diatom found in over 12 watersheds throughout Vancouver Island, and in the Bulkley, South Thompson, Kettle, Columbia and Kootenay Rivers forms massive blooms destroying habitat for fish, plants and invertebrates, reducing oxygen in the water, altering food webs J. Leekie Didymo

56 Question Name five main environmental impacts that invasive species can have on a region. L. Wilson Yellow Hawkweed

57 Environmental Impacts 1.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reduce biodiversity of a region Impact landscapes Disrupt ecosystems Destroy wildlife habitats Reduce water quality

58 2.3 Social Impacts Invasive plants can impact human health and safety: obstruct sightlines and road signs along highway corridors cause skin burns and dermatitis increase allergies E.g. leaves and stems of Giant hogweed, an escaped ornamental, contain toxic sap that can cause hypersensitivity to sunlight, resulting in burns, blisters, and scarring CIPC Giant Hogweed

59 Recreation Impacts Invasive species limit habitat, displace fish and wildlife and reduce water quality. E.g. Eurasian watermilfoil displaces native plants and makes water bodies unsuitable for fish or for swimming May cause partial park closures if deemed necessary Eurasian Watermilfoil

60 Recreation Impacts Park trails and camp sites expensive to maintain due to toxic or prickly invasive plants. E.g. the seeds of Puncturevine, found in the Okanagan, can puncture bike tires and hurt animals and people Puncturevine L. Scott

61 First Nations Culture Many First Nations have suffered the loss of traditional food and medicinal plants, due to invasive plants displacing native species. Invasive plant removal on Tobacco Plains Reserve E. Armagost Kispiox Community Weed Pull M. Hillis

62 Changing Conditions: Climate Change Climate change does and will continue to play a role in invasive species establishment and spread. Warmer weather allows species that live further south to migrate and populate BC environments: E.g. Nutria Changing environmental conditions allow invasive species to flourish in certain areas, such as disturbed or degraded areas, as well as more sensitive environments Some native species can become invasive due to changing climatic conditions: E.g. The mountain pine beetle is native but its wide spread invasion was partly brought on by warmer winters, allowing populations to grow rather than die off during very cold temperatures Mountain Pine BeetleNutria Judy Millar Wikipedia

63 Changing Conditions: Climate Change Top 10 invasive species for consideration under climate change: Plants: 1. Yellow starthistleCentaurea solstitalis 2. KudzuPueraria montana 3. Medusahead grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae 4. PuncturevineTribulus terrestis 5. Giant HogweedHeracleum mategazzianum 6. Parrot feather Myriophyllum aquaticum Animals: 7. NutriaMyocastor coypus 8. Yellow perchPerca flavescens 9. Smallmouth bassMicropterus salmoides 10. Signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

64 Section 3. Invasive Species Introductions: How Do They Get Here? In this section, we outline some of the main pathways of entry of invasive species, to provide a basis for where and how to look for them, and prevent their entry and spread. Invasive plants are introduced to Canada and BC in many ways – and people usually have a role to play Some species are brought in on purpose (e.g. as ornamentals or pets) while some are brought in by accident (e.g. through crop and seed contaminants)

65 Question List as many ways you can think of that invasive species could enter BC: include both plant and animal species. Diffuse Knapweed on truck flap Eurasian watermilfoil on boat motor L. Scott OFAH

66 Invasive Species enter BC thru: Travel and trade Recreation Gardening and agriculture Shipping/Canals Water, wind, soil Escapees Pets Intentional releases

67 Increased travel and trade (land, air, water). People are moving around the globe more than ever, and invasive species hitch rides on vehicles, containers, baggage 3.1 Key Pathways of Invasion/Spread Ministry of Transportation

68 Recreation. Plants and animals hitch rides on boats, pets, car and bike tires and bumpers, wildlife, all-terrain vehicles, hiking boots, camping and fishing gear Keep an eye on campsites and trails for plants and seeds spread by park visitors 3.1 Key Pathways of Invasion / Spread Treated burdock at public campground J. Leekie

69 3.1 Key Pathways of Invasion / Spread Gardening & Agriculture - Cultivated plants escape from gardens and farms to wetlands, grasslands, and roadsides. Purple loosestrife was sold at garden centres for its lovely purple flowers, but has now spread across Canada and covers millions of hectares. Some seed mixes are also contaminated with invasive plant seeds. Utah State University Purple Loosestrife in garden

70 Shipping & Canals Shipping. A major source of water-based invasive species is ballast water that ships take on for stability and later dump into harbours worldwide. Species that have come to Canada this way are the zebra mussel, round goby, and spiny water flea. Other plants and animals arrive as stowaways, hidden in cargo on ships, trains, trucks, and planes. CBS NewsNYIS Zebra MusselsRound Goby

71 Shipping & Canals Canals. Artificial waterways have allowed the sea lamprey, an eel-like fish from the Atlantic Ocean, to cross natural barriers and invade the Great Lakes Wikipedia Sea Lamprey

72 Water, Wind and Soil Natural processes spread seeds, plants and other species around. Many invasive plants have seeds well-adapted to being blown long distances. Milk Thistle going to seed J. Samanek Milk Thistle in bloom

73 Escapees The American Bullfrog, native to eastern North America, was introduced to BC in the early 20 th century by people wanting to farm them for their meaty legs Fallow deer escaped from game farms and are now established on several Gulf Islands American Bullfrog R. Ottens Fallow deer

74 Pets / Intentional Releases Pets. The release of unwanted aquarium pets introduced red- eared slider turtles, European wall lizards, rabbits and many fish species into the wild. Parks tend to be favourite drop-off sites. Wikipedia Red-eared Slider Turtle Wikipedia European Wall Lizard

75 Pets / Intentional Releases Intentional releases. European starlings and house sparrows let loose in New York City's Central Park in the 19th century now blanket the Western Hemisphere Wikipedia House Sparrow

76 Section 4. Management and Legislation around Invasive Species 4.1 Prevention: EDRR! Prevention is by far the most efficient approach to invasive species management: don’t let them in! BC Government has instituted an Early Detection Rapid Response plan:

77 Section 4. Management and Legislation around Invasive Species 4.1 Prevention: EDRR! EDRR: Early Detection of newly arrived invasive species, followed by a well-coordinated Rapid Response, will increase the chances of eradicating or containing them is the most cost-effective means of controlling expansion of invasive species Activities guided by the BC Invasive Plant EDRR Plan

78 4.2 Coordination is Key - The IMISWG In BC, an Inter-ministry Invasive Species Working Group (IMISWG) was formed to take a strategic approach to the management of invasive species Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations Environment BC Parks Agriculture Transportation Energy and Mines Community, Sport and Cultural Development Oil and Gas Commission Includes members from Ministries of:

79 4.2 Coordination is Key - The IMISWG Associated Membership: Ministry of Aboriginal Relations & Reconciliation Ministry of Environment– Environmental Management Branch Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations – Forest Health Ministry of Public Safety & Solicitor General Agricultural Land Commission Ministry of Health Note: Legislation and past management plans on IMISWG website Inter-ministry Invasive Species Working Group

80 4.3 Regulations for BC Parks Staff to Know Parks can be prime sites for invasive species introductions, through visitors, recreational activities, and dumping of unwanted pets, yard and garden waste. Know where to look for species that are prohibited in BC: 1.The Controlled Alien Species Regulation, under the Wildlife Act: 2.The Weed Control Act: e/00_96487_01 e/00_96487_01 3.The BC Proposed Prohibited Noxious Weeds - invasive plant species that are not present in BC (or only extremely limited in extent), and pose a significant threat.

81 Section 5. Invasive Species in Your Region Question: List some invasive species you know about that are present in BC (list at least 5). Do you know of specific invasive species that are affecting your BC Parks region? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

82 5.1 Invasive Plants – Main Provincial Invaders The main invasive plants that are currently a management concern across BC are as follows: Giant hogweed (Heracleum mategazzianum) Knotweeds (Japanese, Giant, Bohemian, Himalayan - Fallopia japonica; F. sp.) Blueweed (Echium vulgare) Knapweeds (Spotted, Diffuse, other - Centaurea sp). Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) Marsh plume thistle (Cirsium palustre) Common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Ministry of Agriculture Blueweed

83 5.1 Invasive Plants – Main Provincial Invaders The main invasive plants that are currently a management concern across BC are as follows: Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) Sulphur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta) Daisy (oxeye, scentless chamomile – Chrysanthemum leaucanthemem) Hawkweeds (orange and yellow – Hieraclum aurantiacum) Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) Yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) Himalayan balsam/Policeman’s helmet (Impatiens glandulifera) Didymo/rock snot (a diatom – Didymosphenia geminate) L. Scott Oxeye Daisy

84 5.2 Spotlight: The Top Invasive Plants in your Region! BC Parks are categorized under five regions: – Northern Region – South Coast (Lower Mainland) – West Coast (Vancouver Island / North Coast) – Cariboo/Thompson – Kootenay/Okanagan

85 Regions For the purpose of investigating invasive species, there is a lot of overlap; therefore the 5 regions have been combined into three general areas: – Northern – Coastal - South Coast and West Coast – Interior - Cariboo/Thompson and Kootenay/Okanagan J. Leekie Marsh Plume Thistle

86 Northern Region: “The Dirty Dozen” Common tansy Tanacetum vulgare Dalmation toadflax Linaria dalmatica Diffuse knapweedCentaurea diffusa Field scabious Knautia arvensis Hoary alyssum Berteroa incana Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula Marsh plume thistle Cirsium palustre Orange hawkweed Hieraclum aurantiacum Oxeye daisy Chrysanthemum leaucanthemem Scentless chamomile Matricaria perforata Merat Spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosa Yellow hawkweed Hieracium caespitosum

87 Coastal - South Coast and West Coast “The Dirty Dozen” Giant hogweed Heracleum mategazzianum Knotweed species (all) Fallopia japonica; sp. Daphne laurel Daphne laureola Orange and Yellow hawkweeds Hieraclum aurantiacum; H. caespitosum English ivy (any ivy species) Hedera helix Lamium Lamium album Thistles (Canada and Bull) Cirsium arvense Blueweed Echium vulgare St. John's Wort Hypericum perforatum Blackberry species (Himalayan and Cut leaf)Rubus discolor; Rubus laciniatus Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Yellow Flag Iris Iris pseudacorus

88 Interior: Cariboo/Thompson & Kootenay/Okanagan “The Dirty Dozen” Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Diffuse & spotted knapweed Centaurea diffusa, C. maculosa Rush skeletonweed (EDRR species) Chondrilla juncea Common bugloss (EDRR species) Anchusa officinalis Puncturevine Tribulus terrestis Longspine sandbur Cenchrus longispinus Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula Yellow flag iris Iris pseudacorus Tansy ragwort Senecia jacobea Hoary alyssum Berteroa incana Orange hawkweed Hieraclum aurantiacum Dalmatian toadflax Linaria dalmatica

89 5.3 Invasive Animals – Main Provincial Invaders Here are a few other invasive species to be aware of. Read about the species that are of concern in your region: Bass: smallmouth, largemouth (South, West Coast, Interior) Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieu Zebra and Quagga mussels (not in BC but moving west from Manitoba) Dreissena polymorpha, D. bugensis Asian clam (not in BC but in the US) - Corbicula fluminea European and Argentine fire ant (West Coast and South Coast) - Solenopsis sp. Eastern grey squirrel (South Coast, Thompson /Okanagan) - Sciurus carolinensis American bullfrog (West Coast, Okanagan, South Coast) - Rana catesbeiana Nutria (South Coast – Richmond) - Myocastor coypus

90 Other Invasive Species of Concern: Zebra and Quagga Mussels – a province wide alert! (Dreissena polymorpha, D. bugensis) We do not want these in BC !! cost millions of dollars through clogging pipes, waterways, and hydroelectric equipment have spread west from Ontario to Lake Winnipeg water-based recreation a major way they can enter BC, attached to boats, equipment species/invasive-organisms/zebra-and-quagga- mussels species/invasive-organisms/zebra-and-quagga- mussels check out the ISCBC ‘Clean, Drain, Dry’ Program for information on prevention: drain-dry drain-dry

91 Other Invasive Species of Concern: European Fire Ants – South and West Coast (Solenopsis sp.) came to North America from Eurasia in the early 1900’s spread across several provinces, including BC nests difficult to spot, very hard to eradicate armed with a ‘fire’ like sting, will attack aggressively if disrupted species/fire_ants.htm R. Ottens European Fire Ant

92 Other Invasive Species of Concern: Asian Clam - a province-wide alert: Okanagan Alert (Corbicula fluminea) These clams have spread throughout the USA, and are present in waterways throughout Washington State Similar to zebra mussels, they reproduce in large colonies that clog waterways and pipes. Find out more at the National Invasive Species Council website Wikipedia Asian Clam

93 Other Invasive Species of Concern: Eastern Grey Squirrels – Thompson / Okanagan (Sciurus carolinensis) small number released in Stanley Park in 1909 spread to Lower Mainland, Okanagan, Vancouver Island outcompete native squirrels and birds; eat eggs and nestlings species/invasive-organisms/eastern-grey- squirrel Wikipedia Eastern Grey Squirrel

94 Other Invasive Species of Concern: Bullfrogs – Okanagan, South and West Coast (Rana catesbeiana) biggest frog in N America bullfrog farms promoted in BC after World War II, but were not profitable; frogs released into the wild prey on and outcompete native frogs, other amphibians, fish, small mammals carry diseases Read more - The Bullfrog Project Wikipedia Bullfrog

95 Other Invasive Species of Concern: Nutria – South Coast Myocastor coypus Large, semi-aquatic rodent native to S. America; prolific breeder Now found in Lower Mainland Overgraze wetland plants, destroying marshlands, cause erosion Burrowing damages river and stream banks and dykes, canals as.aspx?sciname=Myocastor%20coypus Wikipedia Nutria

96 Invasive Plants threaten BC Parks Check out the Invasive Plant Threat Analysis Report done in 2010, that covers all BC Parks and Protected Areas: gendasMinutes/AirQualityandEnvironmentManag ement/Archived%20Agendas/0%2005%2004%20 EC%20Environment%20Committee/item%206.1% 20Invasive%20Plant%20Analysis.pdf

97 Question: How could invasive species infestations affect the BC Parks in your region, economically, environmentally and socially? Please list two points under each category: Economic impacts / Environmental impacts / Social impacts Kalamalka Lake Provincial Park Judy Millar

98 Potential Impacts to BC Parks: Economic 1. 2. Environmental 1. 2. Social 1. 2.

99 Section 6. “What Can I Do To Help?” Actions: Prevent, Record and Report! Prevention is the best tool against the introduction and spread of invasive species. Being “on the lookout” for invasive species in BC Parks will help to decrease likelihood that new invasive species will become established, and increase likelihood of eradication if they do show up Important to be able to: Identify and report invasive species, understand how to prevent their spread, and how to help control and eradicate the ones that are already established

100 Question List some actions you can take to prevent the introduction and spread of invasive plants in BC Parks. Woss Lake Provincial Park BC Parks

101 Actions to take to Prevent the Spread: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

102 6.1 Some Actions to Take Learn as much as you can about native and invasive plants and animals Staff, contractors and volunteers to check and clean equipment, vehicles, recreational gear, boots, clothes for seeds/plant pieces Never transport non-native species such as fish bait or plants from one site to another Never allow transportation of firewood from one region to another Spot and report invasive plants – learn to recognize and identify invasive species, report them to your regional invasive species committee or ISCBC Maintain Healthy Plant Communities – restoring and maintaining Park ecosystem health will increase resilience against invasive plant invasions

103 6.1 Some Actions to Take Minimize and re-vegetate soil disturbance – manage park operations and maintenance activities to maintain desirable vegetation and minimize soil disturbance Reseed/re-vegetate – with regionally appropriate, non-invasive, non-persistent seed mixtures or plants. Check the seed certificate analysis to ensure no prohibited species are in the mixture and use native species wherever possible. See BC Parks Seeding Guideline Minimize horticultural escapes – grow regionally native plants or those known to be non-invasive; dispose of garden waste appropriately Minimize spread – control invasive plants PRIOR TO flowering or seed development; use only clean soil and gravel in any construction work

104 6. 2 How to Report an Invasive Species Sighting Invasive species tend to show up in areas that BC Parks staff frequent, like hiking trails, campgrounds, day use areas, shoreline areas, along roadsides and in ditches. If you see a plant species that looks ‘out of place’, or a creature you don’t recognize and have concerns about, PLEASE REPORT IT! You can report the sightings by phone or online Burdock R. Mueller

105 Report Invasive Species Report-A-Weed Website and Mobile APP (download from website) The BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations operates the Report-A-Weed website and phone app Contact your local weed committee or regional district: Check ISCBC’s website listing for a contact or call 1-888-933- 3722 IAPP Invasive Alien Plant Program Application: Database for invasive plants in BC RAPP Line - Report sightings of invasive mussels to the Report all Poachers and Polluters (RAPP) hotline: 1-877-952-7277 Phone ISCBC Toll-free: 1-888-933-3722

106 What to Collect to Report an Invader: When you report a sighting of a suspected invasive plant or animal species, be sure to include: – a photo if possible – the location as specifically as possible (e.g. coordinates are ideal) – the date – the name of the suspected species – a description of the species and the location site, and – the area of infestation (m 2 ) if known – in the course package there is an Information Sheet on How to Collect a Plant Sample: Review this information

107 Invasive Species – Useful Links Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations Inter-Ministry Invasive Species Working Group Invasive Species Council of BC (ISCBC): TIPS Sheets on 16 invasive plants: Targeted Invasive Plant Solutions http://www.bcinvasive Activities TIPS - focus on the best management practices for specific activities: e.g. check the Forestry, Aquatics: Water-Based Recreation and Highways operations TIPS sheets for applicable information to Parks operations. http://www.bcinvasive E Flora - An online encyclopedia of native and invasive plants of BC Royal BC Museum: Aliens Among Us – 47 alien species profiles Invasive Alien Plant Program (IAPP): A web-based database that stores information on comprehensive invasive plant data in BC.

108 Summary You now have some additional tools to help identify invasive plants and other species Your Participant’s Package contains additional information and resources. See the following page for some helpful online links Hoary Alyssum in field BC Parks

109 Thank You for Your Participation, and for your interest and commitment to preventing the spread of invasive species in BC! Field Crew Judy Millar

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