The subsets of flexible learning Flexible Learning Distance Learning E-learning Online Learning M-learning Paper-based Distance Learning Contact Learning (residential/face-to-face)
How is it Different from eLearning? Distilled-down version – learning “nuggets” “Just enough” i.e. brief content Always on On demand (Just-in-time) learning Facilitates learning during naturally occurring times
Potential Applications Performance support Students in field settings Students on the go Multi-way, active learning
2-Way Communication Can add texting capability to an mLearning module Can transmit images and other data
1. Access A mobile learning environment is about access to content, peers, experts, portfolio artifacts, credible sources, and previous thinking on relevant topics. It can be actuated via a smartphone or iPad, laptop or in-person, but access is constant–which in turn shifts a unique burden to learn on the shoulders of the student.or iPad 2. Metrics As mobile learning is a blend of the digital and physical, diverse metrics (i.e., measures) of understanding and “performance of knowledge” will be available. 3. Cloud The cloud is the enabler of “smart” mobility. With access to the cloud, all data sources and project materials are constantly available, allowing for previously inaccessible levels and styles of revision and collaboration. 4. Transparent Transparency is the natural byproduct of connectivity, mobility, and collaboration. As planning, thinking, performance, and reflection are both mobile and digital, they gain an immediate audience with both local and global communities through social media platforms from twitter to facebook, edmodo to instagram.twitteredmodoinstagram
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning 5. Play Play is one of the primary characteristics of authentic, progressive learning, both a cause and effect of an engaged mind. In a mobile learning environment learners are encountering a dynamic and often unplanned set of data, domains, and collaborators, changing the tone of learning from academic and compliant to personal and playful. 6. Asynchronous Among the most powerful principles of mobile learning is asynchronous access. This unbolts an educational environment from a school floor and allows it to move anywhere, anytime in pursuit of truly entrepreneurial learning. It also enables a learning experience that is increasingly personalized: just in time, just enough, just for me.entrepreneurial learning 7. Self-Actuated With asynchronous access to content, peers, and experts comes the potential for self-actuation. Here, learners plan topic, sequence, audience, and application via facilitation of teachers who now act as experts of resource and assessment. 8. Diverse With mobility comes diversity. As learning environments change constantly, that fluidity becomes a norm that provides a stream of new ideas, unexpected challenges, and constant opportunities for revision and application of thinking. Audiences are diverse, as are the environments data is being gleaned from and delivered to.
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning 9. Curation Apps and mobile devices can not only support curation, but can do so better than even the most caffeine- laced teacher might hope to. By design, these technologies adapt to learners, store files, publish thinking, and connect learners, making curation a matter of process rather than ability. 10. Blending A mobile learning environment will always represent a blending of sorts–physical movement, personal communication, and digital interaction. 11. Always-On Always-on learning is self-actuated, spontaneous, iterative, and recursive. There is a persistent need for information access, cognitive reflection, and interdependent function through mobile devices. It is also embedded in communities capable of intimate and natural interaction with students. 12. Authentic All of the previous 11 principles yield an authenticity to learning that is impossible to reproduce in a classroom. They also ultimately converge to enable experiences that are truly personalized.
What’s Intriguing About mLearning? Social media focus Anytime, anywhere learning Incorporates texting Students can be resources
Mobile learning is effective when... Tip 1. Learners choose the learning content. Tip 2. Learners are integrating artifacts, realia, objects, and experiences that surround their daily lives (real world learning). Tip 3. Learners are moving around with the device. Tip 4. Learners are motivated to expand the learning outside the classroom walls. Tip 5. Learners work collaboratively to explore the world around them. Tip 6. Learners are motivated to search for several possible options, solutions, and answers to problems. Tip 7. Learners are presented with problems in which they must find many possible solutions and are able to test out these solutions.
Some Examples of “Mobile Technology Tools” Where do you begin?? Zirada Kallisto Impatica CTAD
If allowed, how would students use a mobile device to help with schoolwork?
Apple in education http://www.apple.com/education/ipodtouch-iphonehttp://www.apple.com/education/ipodtouch-iphone/
A Few Recommended Apps Sources: https://www.ischoolinitiative.com/Educational_Applications.htmlhttps://www.ischoolinitiative.com/Educational_Applications.html http://www.eduinreview.com/blog/2009/05/8-must-have-education-apps-for-iphone/
Simple user interface * Import right from the camera or photo library * Paintbrush, eraser, rectangle, filled rectangle, oval, and filled oval tools * Select tool - double tap to select all * Text tool - annotate your photos and drawings * Many preselected colors to choose from * Adjustable drawing width * Cut, copy, paste, and delete * Undo function * Duplicate frames * Scroll through frames or view as grid http://www.goknow.com/ Example:
Engagement mLearning How learners (of any age) use new technologies to participate in virtual communities where they share ideas, comment upon one another's projects, and plan, design, advance, implement, or simply discuss their goals and ideas together.
Larger Issues Safety Who are students connecting with? What are they doing on the phone? Who is using or has access to the data? Ethical Is it easier to cheat with mobile? Do kids with better phones have an academic advantage? Health Debates Can phones cause brain damage?
Uniqueness of Mobile Learning Personal Informal and formal learning Dynamic context of content Social and constructive User-driven/Self Directed Ubiquity Mobility
Types of mobile learning LMS A mobile extension/interface to learning management systems (Upside2Go) that allows users to access features/functions that are found the in desktop version of the system. Content Delivery The classic delivery of courseware/presentations that are page-based and contains varied media elements. Users access and 'learn' as and when they wish. Assessment Instruments Mobile devices are well suited to quick assessment that can serve as records of performance. Smart phones can render a variety of assessment types. Performance Support This is one of the most common use-cases a learning designer will encounter. Where a learner needs to access reference material for completing a task on hand. Social Learning Provide tools that allow for social interaction and collaboration, which in turn promote learning. Consider providing tools like video/audio conferencing, message board systems, micro-blogging, etc. Augmented Reality These are newish tools that allow learning context and content to be delivered based on geographical relevance and using sensor data from the mobile device. Augmentation of reality simply refers to overlaying data in the form of video, pictures or text over the live real-time image captured by the device's camera sensors. Learning support Where the mobile device can help facilitate learning happening while using other tools or content. For example, using a calculator while reading solving numerical problems in a book. Or looking up a technical glossary when referring to a user manual for a product. There are several other types of mLearning, not limited to mobile games, applications that use phone sensors, etc.
? Paradigm shifts? knowledge adoption production information gathering generation constructivism social constructivism teaching learning facilitation Future learning paradigms
Current approaches to m-learning Content approach Communication approach Approaches to the use of m-learning technologies
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning Behaviourist – Stimulus and Response Multiple Choice Questions with Feedback General Practice Quizzes and Tests Language learning
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning Constructivist – Construct new ideas based on previous experience Games and Simulations Mobile tools have facilitated the collection of data that can be analyzed and shared
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning Situated Learning – Immersion in a situation, where experts and apprentices work together Use devices to take photos, write notes, upload, and share data with others
Example: WildLabWildLab Features include: 1.) A map, with both user and eBird hotspots. 2.) A quick entry view to enter birds you already know; from this page you can enter any of 2055 species of birds. 3.) Facebook Connect to share sightings with others through your social network. 4.) Twitter integration, creating a real-time database of sightings tagged with #wildlab. 5.) Built-in email functionality to share your sightings with birding groups and listserves. 6.) The ability to create Events and have others join them for collaborative birding. 7.) A sightings list, so if there is loss of service, users can upload the sighting later.
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning Problem-Based Learning – Provide an ill-defined problem and allow students to explore. Case Studies in medical education, business training, nursing, Army training, etc
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning Others…. Context Awareness Learning – multimedia in museums and galleries Social-Cultural Theory of Learning – learning takes place in social context Collaborative Learning – sharing of information in group settings Conversational Learning – conversations with others and interactions with systems Activity Learning – Activity, subject, and tools used
Virtual Coaches Functionalities GPS Technology Heart Rate Multiple Displays of Information Custom and “Best Practices Training Compare results to others Applications to Education? Knows where you are Can set personal goals Customizable Information Communicate with the larger group Can set training based on a personal or group need
Virtual Adventures Functionalities Mission is to solve mysteries Students work together using clues from mobile devices Enter data from field and information gets processed for next clues Students control next move Applications to Education? Students are given various missions based on location and skill level Students find, calculate, and process data Students in control of learning
Nugget Supporters Anagram for “Look”, UK-based organization Provide Access to Every Object in Every Venue Allows for uploading content from various sources (museums, zoos, gardens, historical sites) Share and create presentations and stories Works with schools and school partners iPhone and other smart phones, More than 1,100 schools are already enjoying the benefits! WEB
25 Essential Apps For Mobile Learning A List of Great Free Educational Android Apps for Teachers WEB
20 Ideas in 20 Seconds Set homework alarms and study alarms Text reminders for quizzes, things to return Writing notes Use to record fieldwork (camera, audio, video) work on speaking and writing skills Review questions with a classmate, teacher, friend Make a podcast (using GarageBand or Audacity) Review/watch a lecture or experiment video Create a portfolio album Create a survey and send Use GoogleMaps and MapQuest for direction Raise spatial awareness and positioning Play an educational game Use the calculator or graphing tool Look up directions Compare sources of information Perform basic and advanced research Compare temperature and weather conditions Convert metric to English system Learn a new language Check your calendar and time Talk to someone
Discussion How could social media be used in classes? In addition to social networking, how could mLearning be used in some classes?
Authoring Systems for mLearning SoftwareEase of learningStrengthCost MobiSiteGaloreEasyTexting, free hostingFree ***Hot LavaModerateAudio, skins for most popular phones, includes LMS, categories $1000 ToolBookModerateAlso used for eLearning$2795 Adobe FlashDifficultTesting site for different phones, but most phones lack flash player $700
mLearning Samples C-Shock: Culture game C-Shock ProChef: Cooking podcasts ProChef Mayo Clinic InTouch: info for medical professionals Mayo Clinic InTouch mynutrition.com: info for nutrition professionals mynutrition.com BonesInMotion: tracks fitness activities, tracks routes with Google Maps BonesInMotion
Allied Applications Iflipr – makes flash cards for iphone Iflipr Mob – iForge – central site for development of mobile content (all phones) Mob – iForge Qik: share live video from your mobile phone\ Qik Twitter
Development: A)Native applications Can access device hardware – cameras, accelerometer, proximity sensor, etc. or software platform features – address book data, networking, video, voice, messaging features, etc. Ability to use native UI components, platform specific features (ex. – touch gestures) can provide better user experience and usability. Native applications will only work on a targeted platform and devices. Takes time and money to develop; any sort of changes to the application requires technical expertise.
Development: B) WEB applications Platform independence, but still browser dependent – can reach a wide range of devices with browsers and data connectivity. No application delivery, installation and configuration are required. Access through a browser means it is almost instantaneously available to all. Performance is relatively lower than native apps, and is dependent on the browser implementation on platform devices and type of network connectivity available. Quicker development, easier to modify (relative to native apps), but typically requires some sort of delivery framework. HTML5 and CSS3’s eventual emergence as a choice web-app platform will include multimedia integration (the type currently offered by native platforms).
Development: C) Hybrid application Build interfaces and functions as a native app; data interfaces through web. Relatively cheaper to develop than native apps, but comparable to the cost of developing web-apps. Delivery can be easy, but requires some installation and configuration on the part of the user.
MOBIlearn (context awareness, adaptive human interfaces, mLCMS, mobile media delivery, collaborative learning, etc) M-Learning Project (platforms & systems, learning materials for small screens [various devices], collaborative tools, etc) Ericsson Leonardo Da Vinci project (mLCMS, courses and courseware, tools, etc) Noteable EU-funded projects
Moblogging (mobile blogging) Instant messaging (IM) Wireless Google Collapse-to-Zoom and Popouts Ambient technology and intelligence Personalised learning with dynamic adaptation of learning resources to individual preferences Text to speech & speech recognition for mobile devices Multi-user applications and resources Multi-technology interaction Podcasting (broadcasting of audio to iPods) Latest and future developments
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies realize the dialectic relationship between personal technology and everyday learning provide critical reflects the diversity of learners promote strong interdisciplinary research agendas develop the multicultural standards of accreditation for mobile learning technologies provide learners with novel opportunities for synchronous online communications support a range of knowledge based activities coupled with the increasing use of mobile technologies evaluate the usability of mobile applications develop individual technologies that support a person through a lifetime of learning WEB
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies adopt appropriate mixed research methodologies increasing access to learning opportunities in diverse societies promote a lifelong learning increasing the skills of the global workforces provide learners with all the knowledge they need to flourish throughout a lifetime provide learners with best practices for utilizing mobile learning technologies offers new possibilities for interactive online communications support learning outside formal educational settings over a learner’s lifetime access to a wireless network change the dynamics of learning-in and out of the classroom manage the social, societal and cultural impacts of research in mobile learning technologies WEB
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies support learning communities including new forms of improved critical thinking skills cope with various network conditions which must be taken into consideration forecast the exact situations of the mobile application use focus on limited bandwidth and unreliability of wireless networks investigate the rationale for implementing mobile learning technologies develop models of diverse learners which embrace the widely varying timescale improve a sustainable economy for mobile learning technologies develop the effective use of new mobile technologies improve gradually educational excellence provide location-based services for educational networks
Resources University Leaders: ACU, CTU, Open University,ACUCTUOpen University International Academy of Design and TechnologyInternational Academy of Design and Technology Experts: Judy Brown & David Metcalf (UCF) Organizations: LearningTown (mobile learning group) http://www.learningtown.com/http://www.learningtown.com/ The eLearning Guild http://www.elearningguild.com/http://www.elearningguild.com/ International Association of Mobile Learning International Association of Mobile Learning mLearning Conferences: http://www.mlearning-conf.org/http://www.mlearning-conf.org/ http://mlearnopedia.com/ http://mlearnopedia.com/ http://www.elearningguild.com/mLearning conference http://www.elearningguild.com/mLearning conference Blog: handheldlearninghandheldlearning
Books & Journals Instructional Design for M-Learning – David Metcalf Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers – Kukulska & Traxler Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training (eBook of studies from AU Press) – Editor: Mohamed Ally Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training Mobile Learning: on-line journal Mobile Learning Norbert Pachler: Mobile learning: towards a research agenda Norbert Pachler: Mobile learning: towards a research agenda