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Agenda Bell ringer Go over class work Review Alexander the Great Rome (to Principate) Closure.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Bell ringer Go over class work Review Alexander the Great Rome (to Principate) Closure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda Bell ringer Go over class work Review Alexander the Great Rome (to Principate) Closure

2 Review How did Alexander the Great promote Hellenistic culture throughout his empire?

3 Unit 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.)

4 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: ROME’S CREATION OF A MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE (753 BCE-600 CE)

5 Objectives Assess how Rome’s geographic features contributed to its rise to empire. Describe the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic. Assess the reasons for Rome’s expansion. Describe the social changes that took place throughout Rome’s expansion. Describe government during the Principate.

6 Essential Questions How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

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9 Where is Italy?

10 Target: Geography Central location in the Mediterranean Sea – Began in central Italy. – Fertile farmland. Low mountains – few natural barriers to expansion – Well forested, northwest rich in metals. – Navigable rivers.

11 Target: The Republic ( BCE) 507 BCE – Senate instituted a republic Government – Assembly Male citizens, wealthy votes counted more Two consuls presided, commanded army, chosen annually – Senate – real center of power, life terms Advised kings and Consuls, then made policy and governed – Dictator – up to 6 months

12 Society – Conflict of Orders Inequalities between patricians (landowning upper class) and plebeians (farmers, merchants, traders) Twelve Tables (450 BCE) – written laws prevented arbitrary judicial decisions Creation of tribunes – officials drawn from non-elite classes, could veto actions of the Assembly

13 Twelve Tables Table I mandates that when a person is accused of something, both accused and accuser must be present at a hearing or trial on the matter. Table III gives debtors 30 days to pay off a debt. Table IV makes a man's will binding. Table VIII lists specific punishments for certain crimes. Most importantly, it says that a person shown to have lied in court will be put to death. Table IX specifies capital punishment for judges who have taken bribes and for people who have committed treason. Table XI prohibits a plebeian from marrying a patrician (http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/twelvetables.htm)

14 – Family – several living generations, domestic slaves Paterfamilias had absolute authority – Patron/client relationships – Women played no public role Could not own property or represent herself legally Eventually more personal protection and economic freedom

15 – Polytheistic religion Numina – invisible forces Other gods more important (Jupiter, Mars) Pax deorum (“peace of the gods”) Took over the myths attached to Greek gods

16 Target: Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean Potential reasons for expansion – Greed and aggressiveness – Consuls – one year to gain military glory – Defense

17 Well-disciplined, well-trained army – Male citizens with specified amount of land Treated conquered people fairly – Often granted some or all privileges of Roman citizenship – Conquered lands supplied soldiers and taxes Cooperative groups given more autonomy

18 Punic Wars – Rome vs. Carthage – Hannibal – Third Punic War – Rome destroyed Carthage, took slaves Senators sent as governor to each province annually – defended, oversaw tax collection, decided legal cases.

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21 Target: Failure of the Republic and Transition to Empire Wealth – upper classes Farmers replaced by latifundia (“broad estates”) Cheap slave labor = peasants lived in poverty in cities Fewer peasant farmers = fewer military men, propertyless men began to serve BCE – series of ambitious men commanded armies loyal to them

22 – Julius Caesar took control Reforms made him popular Assassinated by members of the Senate

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24 Target: The Roman Principate (31 BCE- 330 CE) Octavian (63 BCE-14 CE) – Fundamentally changed realities of power – Expanded territory – Allied himself with the equites, well-to-do Italian merchants and landowners

25 After Augustus, the Senate confirmed emperors, but in reality chosen by armies – By 100 CE, emperors hand-picked a successor – Future emperors exercised authority more blatantly

26 Law – Emperors were major source – Class of legal experts studied and organized – Property and rights of individuals – Foundation of European law

27 Rural Rome – 80% farmed – Little contact with government – Tenant farmers cultivated land in return for portion of crops Urban Rome – Wealthy in elegant townhouses, poor in crowded slums

28 Commerce – Some urban Romans rich – Helped by the pax romana (“Roman peace”), increased trade Romanization and citizenship – Spread of Latin language and Roman culture – Citizenship gradually granted to those outside Italy

29 Essential Questions How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

30 Agenda

31 Review How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

32 Objectives Describe the rise of and major beliefs of Christianity. Describe the achievements attained by Rome during the Pax Romana. Evaluate the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire.

33 Essential Questions What are the major beliefs of Christianity and how did it expand under the Roman Empire? What achievements did Rome attain during the Pax Romana? Why did the Roman Empire fall?

34 Target: The Rise of Christianity Romans conquered Jewish homeland of Judea in 6 CE – Roman governors caused resentment – Jews waited for the Messiah

35 Jesus – Called himself the son of God – Believed in the Jewish idea of one god, accepted 10 Commandments – Claimed he was "Christ”

36 – Caught the attention of the Jewish authorities Crucified. His followers, Apostles, spread teachings.

37 Christianity grew for more than 200 years – Many women, slaves, and urban poor were first converts Monotheistic – refusal to worship the emperor seen as disloyalty, persecuted by Roman officials Holy book – The Bible

38 Target: Pax Romana (27 BCE- 180 CE) Expansion of Roman Empire resulted in blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures (Greco-Roman civilization)

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40 Examples of Roman Achievements Adapted the realistic Hellenistic style of statues Architecture Over 250,000 miles of road Also had bridges, harbors, and aqueducts Influenced laws in Europe and America.

41 The Pantheon

42 aqueducts

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46 Roman Mosaics

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48 Why is Windsor a good district?

49 What if… All districts in the surrounding area join the district, but only Mr. Andrews is the superintendent? What issues do you foresee becoming a problem? How do you solve these problems?

50 Target: Fall of the Roman Empire Causes of the fall of Rome – Taxes too high – Many corrupt people in government – Poor farmers left land for protection of stronger landowners – People become lazy – Roman army lacks discipline, Romans forced to hire foreign soldiers to defend borders – Barbarian invasions

51 Third-Century Crisis ( CE) – Offensive to defensive strategy – Frequent leadership change – Buying army loyalty drained treasury, high taxes, coins disappeared into emperors’ pockets – Population shifted to countryside

52 Bread and circuses

53 Diocletian gained power in 284 – Divided empire into two parts – Set maximum prices – Froze people into “essential” professions

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55 Constantine (r CE) – Edict of Milan (313) – ended persecution of Christians, granted freedom of religion Christianity later became the official religion – Transferred capital from Rome to Byzantium (324) Renamed Constantinople

56 End of Rome – Two halves of the empire followed different pathways after the transfer of the capital – Western Empire ended in 476 when Romulus Augustulus abdicated Eastern Empire, Byzantine, could continue to flourish for 1000 years

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59 Essential Questions What are the major beliefs of Christianity and how did it expand under the Roman Empire? What achievements did Rome attain during the Pax Romana? Why did the Roman Empire fall?


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