Presentation on theme: "Nathan Schilling. Authoritarianism Independence from the rest of the middle east-Nationalism Importance of Religion Balancing Islam with Westernization."— Presentation transcript:
Authoritarianism Independence from the rest of the middle east-Nationalism Importance of Religion Balancing Islam with Westernization
Agriculture imported from the Fertile Crescent allows for the Elamite kingdom to flourish. Elamites crushed by the Assyrians. Elamite culture revived, centerpiece of Persian culture
Started by Cyprus the Great. Zoroastrianism, similar to Abrahamic religions, is state religion Conquered by Alexander the Great in 330BC, yet Persian culture influences Iranian culture today.
Seleucids ( BCE) Parthians (250BCE-224CE) Sassanids ( CE)-Persian culture reaches zenith. Rival of Rome Conquered by Muslim armies after the founding of Islam in 632CE-ruled by the Umayyad, then Abbasid Caliphate until 819 Samanids ( CE) Seljuk Turks ( CE) Mongols ( CE) Shi’ite Safavids take power in 1502CE
Twelver Shi’ism characterized by a belief in the “Hidden Imam”-Imam went into hiding in 873CE Safavid leaders combined religious/political authourity Established modern Iranian political borders Overthrown by Afghan tribes in 1722.
Established modern borders and capital moved Capital to Tehran. Qajaris were weak and ineffective Successful movement in the 1910s to establish a parliamentary constitution Iran was occupied in World War One by the Russians, Ottomans, and British. Very humiliating
Reza Khan becomes Shah after Majlis endorces his successful coup. Won support by expelling British and Soviet Troops. Modeled his government off Porfirio Díaz-brought in political advisors from Germany due to mistrust of Brits and Russians. Expelled in 1941 by British and Soviet Troops for refusing to expel German nationals from the country.
Son of Reza Khan Continued import-substitution industrialization Broke Spheres of influence, but authoritarian and corrupt 1953 Coup and Anglo-Iranian Oil company. Creation of secret police, the Savak, that cracked down on civil rights. “White Revolution” Video
He alienated the middle class by cracking down on civil rights and stopping democratic reforms. He alienated the poor by failing to really address economic inequality. He alienated the mullahs by redistributing land away from them as a result of the White Revolution, as well as giving women more rights and making Iran more secular. His rapid modernization and industrialization also caused culture shock for most Iranians. All these factors lead to his deposition in 1979.
Protestors get the Shah to flee for his life in Ayatollah Khomeini’s followers are best organized so he is installed. Promises democratic reforms within an Islamic- state framework. Supreme Leader position gave him extensive powers outside democratic system. Instability of revolution prompts Saddam Hussein to invade.
Despite 9 years of fighting, it ended in a stalemate, and resulted in millions of deaths and environmental degradation. War allowed Khomeini to shape the new Iran into an expressly Islamic republic, and crack down on women’s rights. Khomeini dies in 1989 and then-president Ayatollah Khamenei elected Supreme leader in 1989.
Continued the Islamist policy and Islamization of predecessor. Support dwindled in 2009 when he endorsed the widely- believed fraudulent election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to a second term. With the election of president Hassan Rouhani to the presidency in 2013, Iranians hope for a more moderate state.
Authoritarian governments that are lead by political/religious figures. Legitimacy based on religion-Shiism European Imperialism Ancient Persia
Velayat-e faqih (Guardianship of the Jurors) Shari’a
Educational System-instills patriotism and importance of Shiism Military conscription Religion Family subverts these