Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY Prologue. What is Psychology? “The science of behavior and mental processes” What an organism thinks, feels and acts What an organism DOES."— Presentation transcript:
What is Psychology? “The science of behavior and mental processes” What an organism thinks, feels and acts What an organism DOES What an organism EXPERIENCES sensations, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, feelings…
History of Psychology MIND AND BODY ARE DISTINCT = Socrates, Plato, Descartes MIND AND BODY ARE CONNECTED = Aristotle WILHELM WUNDT = Father of modern Psychology
Evolution of Psychology Until 1920’s - Science of MENTAL LIFE 1920’s – 1960’s - Science of OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR 1960’s to current - BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES
Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Inherent problems Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Prologue: Psychology’s Roots William James m69Z_IE
BIG ISSUES QUIZ 0 = disagree strongly; 1= disagree somewhat; 2 = disagree slightly 3 = agree slightly; 4 = agree somewhat; 5 agree strongly Most people have an accurate understanding of the reasons for their own behavior
Psychology’s BIG ISSUES Stability vs. Change Rationality vs. Irrationality Nature vs. Nurture
PSYCHOLOGY’s BIG ISSUE NATURE VS. NURTURE DEBATE Nature: SocratesNurture: Aristotle, Locke -the mind as a blank slate EMPIRICISM: knowledge originates in experience, science should be about observation and experimentation
PSYCHODYNAMIC How behavior derives from unconscious conflicts & drives – childhood traumas, unfulfilled wishes, etc… Sigmund Freud -Personality develops through unconscious experiences -Id, Ego, Superego
BEHAVIORAL How do we learn to respond? How do we alter our behavior for desired results? Behavior controlled by events in the environment Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner Investigated OBSERVABLE behavior
Pavlov umfpxuzI umfpxuzI Eddie Izard and Pavlov’s cat iMrBNWCA iMrBNWCA Skinner qjlrHA qjlrHA
HUMANISTIC Behavior controlled by internal growth and self concept Behaviors evolve are self-directed (FREE WILL) MASLOV Carl Rogers
COGNITIVE How we encode, process, store and retrieve information for memory and reasoning Behavior is a product of our learning Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky How we learn (process, store, retrieve and use info) How learning influences our behavior
NEUROSCIENCE How does brain and body work together to enable memories, emotions? Behavior is controlled by neurological function Roger Sperry Biological interaction of mind and body (BRAIN & CNS)
SOCIAL-CULTURAL How behavior and thinking varies between cultures and situations Behavior is a product of societal influences Solomon Asch Looks at how behavior and thinking varies across cultures
EVOLUTIONARY How does natural selection and evolution influence genes & behavior? Charles Darwin Natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of genes
BEHAVIOR-GENETIC How much does our environment vs. genetics influence our differences, intelligence, personality, sexual orientation?
Perspectives Practice Peter has some emotional problems and is acting out in school. Upon doing some tests, they discover that he excels in visual learning and visual learning cues, while textual cues seem to be a problem. They also learn he may have dyslexia. – What perspective might she use to explain or deal with his behavior?
Perspectives Practice Peter has some emotional problems and is acting out in school. His teacher notices that – while bright- he lacks self-esteem. He is left alone at home and is not eating properly. She found out recently that he is also homeless. She believes that with time and help, he can reach his full potential. – What perspective might she use to explain or deal with his behavior?
Perspectives Practice Peter has some emotional problems and is acting out in school. After he begins taking medication, he begins to slow down and focus on his work. He seems to be doing better, but his mood is “off” and he is not his “happy- go-lucky” self. – What perspective might she use to explain or deal with his behavior?
Perspectives Practice Peter has some emotional problems and is acting out in school. After further investigation into his past, we discover that both his father and grandfather suffered from aggressive tendencies – including Oppositional Defiant Disorder – and had not received help for their illness.Oppositional Defiant Disorder – What perspective might she use to explain or deal with his behavior? Beth
Psychology Perspectives Death Penalty – For or Against? – The Andrea Yates Story: 60 minutes The Andrea Yates Story