Presentation on theme: "Chinese Geography and Early Culture. Located in East Asia and defined by natural borders."— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Geography and Early Culture
Located in East Asia and defined by natural borders
To the East: Pacific, East China Sea and South China Sea To the North Gobi Desert To the West Takla Makan Desert, Himalayas and Plateau of Tibet
Heartland Fertilized by Yangtze and Huang (Yellow) Rivers. Yellow River called China’s Sorrow…allows for fertile plain but unpredictable floods over- deposit loess.
Believed they were the Middle Kingdom
Mongols to the North
Indus Aryans to the West
Maybe they were right
Early Chinese Civilization Strong bonds hold culture together Family first a.Central to Society b.Role fixed from birth to death c.Elders have authority d.Women treated as inferiors e.First known use of two names
Family closely linked to religion Spirits of ancestors bring good luck Sacrifices made to honor ancestors Ancestors of father honored, mother not
Views of Government Obedience to ruler second to family Ruler had the Mandate of Heaven a.A just ruler has divine approval b.A foolish king can lose approval
Dynastic Cycle: Once the Mandate was “Lost” a new ruling family must gain the blessing to rule. This is proven through warfare. Shang BCE Zhou BCE Civil war Ch’in BCE Han 206 BCE-220 CE Long phase of civil war Sui Tang Song Yuan (Mongol) Ming Qing (Manchu)
Shang culture BCE Extreme social classes. Mostly just worried about survival. Some culture emerges such as writing. Chinese writing is in characters Lost mandate when became drunks and maybe insane from lead poisoning.
Zhou dynasty BCE Created a feudal system that backfired as local lords tried to fight for Mandate and “chaos, arrogance and defiance replace order, harmony and respect.” Warlords fight for mandate and Northern barbarians take the opportunity to attack. Philosophers promote theories to bring order back to society
Attempting order Confucius Lao Tzu: Taoism Han Fei Tzu: Legalism Buddhism
You will become one of these philosophers and describe how you would bring order to a chaotic, warring, disrespectful society: Summarize how the teachings/principles/values/rules of your Chinese philosophy will work best to bring order to society. This should be about a page. (Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Legalism) If the reading provided is not enough information please feel welcome to do more research.Taoism BuddhismConfucianismLegalism
A teenage boy will kill all other warring factions and establish “China” named after himself, Ch’in BCE
Emperor Ch’in is hated, ruthless and effective. Doubles size of country, sets standards of laws, money, weights and measures in trading, builds network of highways and increases navigation of rivers. Creates 36 administrative districts to organize his territory.
For control and security Ch’in: Built Great Wall to protect from Northern barbarians Burned all books judged useless or harmful Buried scholars alive
Even protected himself in death…
Protected himself in death
Ch’in’s death brings end to Dynasty. Han is next and civilization flowered 206 BCE-220 CE Time of Glory, Unity, Peace Enlarged empire Poetry and books flourish University founded Silk Road brings wealth
Eventually drought, famine, plague and high taxes lead to peasant revolts and overthrow of Han. Will be a long period of war until next dynasty emerges. Sui, Tang, Song, Mongol, Ming, Qing Mo Were the Mongol’s that bad? Mo
Song Comparison to Europe
Serfdom ended Agricultural revolution (rice and tea) Currency Books, movable type Gunpowder astronomy Porcelain Silk Poetry Art Philosophy and scholarship emphasized Shipping, compass, rudder Large cities: Kaifeng about a million v London about 18,000.