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BY: EMILY WONG With many thanks to: COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT PROGRAM OF 2011 PROFESSOR: LISA YUN GRADUATE ASSISTANT: SANDY WOO DEPARTMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "BY: EMILY WONG With many thanks to: COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT PROGRAM OF 2011 PROFESSOR: LISA YUN GRADUATE ASSISTANT: SANDY WOO DEPARTMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY: EMILY WONG With many thanks to: COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT PROGRAM OF 2011 PROFESSOR: LISA YUN GRADUATE ASSISTANT: SANDY WOO DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN AND ASIAN AMERICAN STUDIES BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY Traditional Instruments of China

2 Note to Teacher: Please obtain a copy of Music in China by Frederick Lau with CD attached for access to recordings of specific instruments and a concise introduction to Chinese music.

3 Note to Teacher: A test run was conducted on about 20 students and their parents from the Chinese school run by the Southern Tier Chinese Culture Association in Vestal, NY. Their ages ranged from 7-9. Guest performer on the zheng was Fuxin Bao.

4 AN BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO CHINA’S VERY LONG HISTORY AND CHINESE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS History of Traditional Chinese Instruments

5 Chinese History China’s history spans over 4,000 years!

6 Traditional Chinese Instruments Traditional Chinese instruments themselves have a very long history which lasted over 7,000 years!

7 Traditional Chinese Instruments

8 Some of the earliest instruments date back to 6000 B.C. and were made of animal bones!

9 Traditional Chinese Instruments The oldest instruments found were flutes made of animal leg bones.

10

11 China’s Dynasties c 21st-16th century BC Xia

12 China’s Dynasties BC Shang

13 China’s Dynasties BC Western Zhou BC Eastern Zhou  BC Spring and Autumn period  BC Warring States period

14 China’s Dynasties BC Qin

15 China’s Dynasties 206 BC-AD 9 Western Han AD 9-24 Xin AD Eastern Han

16 China’s Dynasties AD Three Kingdoms (San Guo)  Wei  Shu  Wu

17 China’s Dynasties AD Western Jin AD Eastern Jin

18 China’s Dynasties AD Southern and Northern Dynasties Southern Dynasties Liu Song Qi (Ch'i) Liang Chen Northern Dynasties Northern Wei Eastern Wei Western Wei Northern Qi (Ch'i) Northern Zhou (Chou)

19 China’s Dynasties AD Sui

20 China’s Dynasties AD Tang

21 China’s Dynasties AD Five Dynasties  AD Ten Kingdoms

22 China’s Dynasties Liao

23 China’s Dynasties Song  Northern Song  Southern Song

24 China’s Dynasties Western Xia

25 China’s Dynasties Jin

26 China’s Dynasties Yuan

27 China’s Dynasties Ming

28 China’s Dynasties Qing

29 China’s Dynasties 1912-present Modern China

30 BUT ONLY A FEW DYNASTIES HAD A LARGE EFFECT ON THE MAKING OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE INSTRUMENTS. Traditional Chinese Instruments

31 During the Xia period, instruments were mainly comprised of drums, bone flutes, bronze bells and stone chimes.  Were important in rituals and dancing.

32 The flutes and chimes became more complex during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties with the rise of the Bronze Age.  Development of stringed instruments that used silk strings.

33 Traditional Chinese Instruments The next period of important changes was during the Qin to Han dynasties.  Creation of instruments similar to the Western lute.  Linked to flourish in trade.

34 Traditional Chinese Instruments During the Wei to Tang dynasties, percussion instruments, or drum-family instruments, became popular along with woodwinds and fiddles.

35 Traditional Chinese Instruments The last period of change in Chinese instruments was the rise in popularity of fiddles or bowed instruments and plucked lutes starting from the Song dynasty to the current period.

36 Traditional Chinese Instruments Can find influences from the Silk Road, which was a major trade route between China and other civilizations.

37 Traditional Chinese Instruments A popular phrase used to describe the instruments is “silk and bamboo”.

38 Traditional Chinese Instruments 中国音乐 (Zhōngguó yīnyuè) or 国乐 (guóyuè) for short – “music of the nation”  Describes music that is written for Chinese instruments.

39 Traditional Chinese Instruments Some of the songs have ancient origins and legends behind them.

40 Traditional Chinese Instruments Legends states that during the Three Kingdom’s period, a Chinese general named Zhuge Liang (Zhūgě Liàng) was able to protect his city by playing the guqin. His calm attitude fooled the enemy army into thinking that they would be ambushed inside.

41 Traditional Chinese Instruments Some songs are also about scenes from history or nature.

42 Traditional Chinese Instruments Ambush from Ten Sides, also known in Chinese as 十 面埋伏 (shí miàn mái fú), describes a ferocious fight scene from a battle between the Chu and Han armies in 202 BC.

43 THE TERM WAS OFTEN USED TO DESCRIBE WHAT THE INSTRUMENTS WERE MADE OF. The Eight Tones 八音 ( bāyīn)

44 Bamboo

45 Gourd

46 Wood

47 Metal

48 Animal Skin

49 Clay

50 Stone

51 Silk

52 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND HOW THEY ARE PLAYED Types of Ancient Chinese Instruments

53 Are made up of three categories:  Strings  Woodwinds  Percussions

54 Strings Stringed instruments are made of wood, bamboo, silk, metal and animal skin. Example: gŭqín 古琴

55 Strings Bowing Example:  èrhú 二胡

56 Strings Plucking Example:  pípá, 琵琶

57 Strings Hammering Example:  yángqín 扬琴

58 Woodwinds Woodwinds were made of:  bamboo  wood  animal bones  metal Example: dízi 笛子

59 Woodwinds Breathing through a mouth piece. Example:  Suŏnà 唢呐

60 Percussion Percussion instruments were made of:  Clay  Metal  Wood  Stone  Gourd Example: Luó 锣

61 Percussion Hands Example:  Jīngbó 京鈸

62 Percussion Mallets Example:  Biānqìng 编磬

63 Sticks Example:  dàgŭ 大鼓

64 WHAT INSTRUMENT AM I? Quiz Time!

65 What instrument am I?

66 Erhu I am a 2-stringed lute that is bowed. I came to China over a thousand years ago from Central Asia!

67 What instrument am I?

68 Pipa I am a four-stringed instrument that is plucked. I am over 2,000 years old!

69 What instrument am I?

70 Guqin I am a seven stringed instrument that is plucked. I am over 5,000 years old.

71 What instrument am I?

72 Suona I am a woodwind instrument with a metal bell at the end. I am over 1,700 years old!

73 What instrument am I?

74 Dizi I am a flute made of bamboo. I am over 6,000 years old.

75 Sources: Lau, Frederick. Music in China: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford UP, Print. Lee, Yuan-Yuan, and Sin-yan Shen. Chinese Musical Instruments. Chicago: Chinese Music Society of North America, Print. Lai, T. C., and Robert Mok. Jade Flute: the Story of Chinese Music. New York: Schocken, Print. Jin, Jie. Chinese Music: Echos in Ancient and Modern times. Beijing: China Intercontinental, Print.

76 Resources Provides a basic introduction to Chinese instruments along with video and audio files. music/html/traditional.html Provides media files of traditional and contemporary Chinese music Photos and images: Courtesy of Google Images


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