Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology
What is Psychology?
Prescientific Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greeks Socrates (knowledge is innate) Plato (like Socrates, used logic & opinions) Aristotle (instead, derived principles from observation) How did each view knowledge?
Prescientific Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Rene Descartes (how the immaterial mind and physical body communicate) Francis Bacon (human understanding and experience) John Locke ( knowledge originates in experience) empiricism
Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Established the first psychology laboratory Hear sound, press key
Psychology developed into three different branches, or schools of thought structuralism (looking inward, self reflect) functionalism (how functions enable use to adapt, survive, and flourish) behaviorism (observable action)
Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s STRUCTURE (1890s) Edward Titchener Unreliable: vary from person to person Don’t know why we feel and do what we do Recollection errors Introspection Phased out: opinion, verify? Apple example
Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s FUNCTION (1890s) William James (different from Titchener how?) –Disconnected parts vs. evolved functions Consciousness serves as a function Ties to Natural selection: adaptation, (ideas, emotions, can extend beyond physical traits) –Showing emotions (frowning example)
A test of how you react to unexpected situations Q#1: What did you experience when you learned of the “pop” quiz? Q#2: Which thoughts and emotions were helpful toward performance? harmful? Q#3: What steps might you take to overcome anxiety when faced with unexpected situations? Unit 1 Pop Quiz Unit 1 Pop Quiz (get a piece of paper)
Exercise: Psychologist as Scientist (p. 6) List three adjectives that describe a typical psychologist. List three adjectives that describe a typical scientist.
art chemistry ___1_________2_________3_________4_________5_________6_________7___ philosophy physics Science: Where is Psychology?
Psychological Science Develops (1960s) Behaviorists rooted in observation-B.F. Skinner Can record people’s behavior as they respond to different situations Reinforces positive or negative behavior
GET + GET something REMOVE - REMOVE something
“you be the parent” (e.g., chores, homework, curfew, etc.) Behavior EncouragedBehavior Suppressed Stimulus presented + (get) Stimulus removed or withheld – (remove)
Psychological Science Develops 1960s Humanistic psychology (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow) –Importance of environmental influences on our growth potential and having our needs satisfied
Psychological Science Develops 1960s Cognitive Neuroscience: ways we perceive, process, and remember information (1960s) –This approach has led us to understand and treat disorders like depression –Requires thinking
Think / Feel / Do StressfulPeaceful Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist! Wronged Anger REVENGE! 8 th Comm. Accepting / Peaceful Christian LOVE ThoughtFeelingAction Sinful (Old Adam) Godly ( New Man )
Psychology’s Biggest Question Nature-Nurture Issue biology vs. experience history Charles Darwin natural selection
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Levels of Analysis: Biological, psychological, & social-cultural Together, they form an integrated biopsychosocial approach –Complement one another, have their own limits, ask different questions
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
question on bottom p. 11
Psychological Approaches/Perspectives biological evolutionary psychodynamic behavioral cognitive humanistic social-cultural how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences how natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes how natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts how we learn observable responses how we learn observable responses how we encode, process, store and retrieve information how we encode, process, store and retrieve information how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cutlures How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cutlures
Psychology’s Subfields Psychometrics-measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits difference between basic, applied, and clinical science research? LO #6
biological psychology developmental psychology educational psychology personality psychology social psychology basic research investigates persistent traits investigates persistent traits studies changing abilities throughout the life span studies changing abilities throughout the life span explores how we view and affect one another explores how we view and affect one another studies influences on teaching and learning studies influences on teaching and learning explores link between brain and behavior explores link between brain and behavior
industrial/organizational psychology human factors psychology counseling psychology clinical psychology psychiatry applied research helps people cope with adjustments, challenges, and crises used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders focuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments focuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments
Clinical science and applications Counseling-help people cope with challenges and crises Clinical psychologists-assess and treat mental, emotional, or behavior disorders Psychiatrists-medical doctors