5 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Ancient GreeksSocrates (knowledge is innate)Plato (like Socrates, used logic & opinions)Aristotle (instead, derived principles from observation)How did each view knowledge?
6 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology Rene Descartes (how the immaterial mind and physical body communicate)Francis Bacon (human understanding and experience)John Locke (knowledge originates in experience)empiricism
7 Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1879)Established the first psychology laboratoryHear sound, press key
8 Psychology developed into three different branches, or schools of thought structuralism (looking inward, self reflect)functionalism (how functions enable use to adapt, survive, and flourish)behaviorism (observable action)
9 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s STRUCTURE (1890s) Edward TitchenerUnreliable: vary from person to personDon’t know why we feel and do what we doRecollection errorsIntrospectionPhased out: opinion, verify?Apple example
10 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s FUNCTION (1890s) William James (different from Titchener how?)Disconnected parts vs. evolved functionsConsciousness serves as a functionTies to Natural selection: adaptation, (ideas, emotions, can extend beyond physical traits)Showing emotions (frowning example)
11 Unit 1 Pop Quiz (get a piece of paper) A test of how you react to unexpected situationsQ#1: What did you experience when you learned of the “pop” quiz?Q#2: Which thoughts and emotions were helpful toward performance? harmful?Q#3: What steps might you take to overcome anxiety when faced with unexpected situations?
12 Exercise: Psychologist as Scientist (p. 6) List three adjectives that describe a typical scientist.List three adjectives that describe a typical psychologist.
13 Science: Where is Psychology? art chemistry___1_________2_________3_________4_________5_________6_________7___philosophy physics
14 Psychological Science Develops (1960s) Behaviorists rooted in observation-B.F. SkinnerCan record people’s behavior as they respond to different situationsReinforces positive or negative behavior
19 Psychological Science Develops 1960s Cognitive Neuroscience: ways we perceive, process, and remember information (1960s)This approach has led us to understand and treat disorders like depressionRequires thinking
20 Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist! Think / Feel / DoStressfulPeaceful12Sinful (Old Adam)Godly ( New Man )5638th Comm.WrongedThoughtFeelingAction74Accepting / PeacefulAngerChristian LOVEREVENGE!Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist!
23 Psychology’s Biggest Question Nature-Nurture Issuebiology vs. experiencehistoryCharles Darwinnatural selection
24 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Levels of Analysis: Biological, psychological, & social-culturalTogether, they form an integrated biopsychosocial approachComplement one another, have their own limits, ask different questions
28 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis question on bottom p. 11
29 Psychological Approaches/Perspectives how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experienceshow natural selection of traits promoted the survival of geneshow behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflictshow we learn observable responseshow we encode, process, store and retrieve informationhow we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillmentHow behavior and thinking vary across situations and cutluresbiologicalevolutionarypsychodynamicbehavioralcognitivehumanisticsocial-cultural
30 Psychology’s Subfields Psychometrics-measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traitsdifference between basic, applied, and clinical science research?
31 basic research investigates persistent traits studies changing abilities throughout the life spanexplores how we view and affect one anotherstudies influences on teaching and learningexplores link between brain and behaviorbiological psychologydevelopmental psychologyeducational psychologypersonality psychologysocial psychology
32 applied research industrial/organizational psychology human factors psychologycounseling psychologyclinical psychologypsychiatryhelps people cope with adjustments, challenges, and crisesused in the workplace to help companies select and train employeesmedical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatmentassesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disordersfocuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments
33 Clinical science and applications Counseling-help people cope with challenges and crisesClinical psychologists-assess and treat mental, emotional, or behavior disordersPsychiatrists-medical doctors