Presentation on theme: "The Age of Pilgrimages: Romanesque Art Main Ideas 1.Revival of large scale architecture & sculpture. 2.Pilgrimage increased the spread of people and ideas."— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Pilgrimages: Romanesque Art Main Ideas 1.Revival of large scale architecture & sculpture. 2.Pilgrimage increased the spread of people and ideas. 3.Architects developed apses of churches to accommodate large numbers of people. 4.Church sculptures stress the theme of the Last Judgment and the need for salvation. 5.Manuscript painting and weaving flourish as art forms.
The migration and general “chaos” defining the Early Medieval period finally settles down Viking cultures in N.E. Christianize Islamic invasions from Spain and N. Africa stop. The Crusades attempt to push back Muslim lands further by re-conquering Muslim conquered lands Social Characteristics of the Late Medieval Period: Large scale regional stability allows for trade and arts to flourish Religious pilgrimages throughout Europe and Jerusalem lead to widespread travel and cultural diffusion. Need for religious shrines, buildings, cathedrals, etc. increases.
Remodel or new construction of thousands of church buildings=expression of thanks for surviving millennial year 1000, which some thought was the end of the world. Pilgrims: funded monasteries and contributed to town growth Fear end of world and travel to see/experience holy powers Architecture Barrel and groin vaults based on round arches Wooden roofs (Italy) Vary regionally, but have common Roman features
Wood and metal sculpture Reliquaries=[containers for relics physical remains of saints, or any object associated with a religious figure)] of saints, tabletop crucifixes, and small wooden devotional images Small-scale Revival of Stone buildings (churches, etc.)
Patronage and Artistic Life Medieval society focused on feudalism Peasants work the land and owe allegiance to lords Lords own the land and had a hierarchy Artisans were in between Women= feminine arts Weaving ceramics, manuscript decoration Powerful people commissioned works Nunneries, illuminated manuscripts Churches, monasteries Medieval architecture focused on Castles, manor houses, monasteries, and churches Utilized master builders as well as artisans
Innovations in Medieval Architecture: Cathedrals Source of civic and religious pride Took 100’s of years to build Stone roofs (not wood) to help preserve (concrete is ignored now) Problems with Stone (HEAVY) Thicker walls to support roof Small windows Dark interiors Windows “angled”- exterior narrower than interior Rib vault Originally decorative, placed ON TOP of groin vault Channel some roof weight down to walls Opens up ceilings more Pluses to using stone Fireproof/ weather proof Durable Conducts well (Gregorian chants… )
More Innovations in Romanesque Architecture… Bay a basic unit of medieval construction vertical section of a church often containing arches on the first floor, a triforium with smaller arches on the second floor, and a clerestory on the third. It’s form is often repeated throughout the church Ambulatory The passageway that winds around an apse. Allows people to move freely around the church without disturbing the ceremony. Romanesque buildings often add chapels at intervals around the apse to display relics, statues, and other sacred items.
Axial Plan Also called Basilican Plan and Longitudinal plan
Tympanum: prominent semicircular half-moon (lunette) above the doorway Voussoirs: wedge-shaped blocks that hold together archivolts of the arch framing the tympanum Archivolts: decorative molding around an arched doorway Lintel: horizontal beam over a doorway Trumeau: center post supporting the lintel in the middle of a doorway Jambs: side posts of a doorway
Funded by spoils (seized valuables) from naval victory over Muslims in Sicily in 1062 A monument to the glory of God and credit to the city All parts harmoniously related through appearance Cathedral: large with nave and 4 aisles. One of the most impressive and majestic of all Romanesque churches Multiple arcaded galleries Marble incrustation (colored wall decoration) Arcades and blind arcades used on façade Wooden roof- common in Italy Groin vaults over side aisles
Baptistery: where infants and converts were initiated into Christian community Upper portion remodeled with Gothic exterior
Tower of Pisa) Separate Campanile (bell tower) Leaning due to a settling sandy foundation 21’ out of plumb from the top Arcaded galleries Closed in 1990 for danger of falling. Repaired by 45 cm to stabilize it and reopened.
By William of Normandy, who was buried there 1087 Façade=Carolingian and Ottonian westwork 4 buttresses create 3 bays Spires added later (Gothic)
Engaged half-columns alternate with compound piers 3 levels allow intense light, makes nave appear taller Engaged half-columns alternate with compound piers Originally had a timber roof; replaced by rib vaults and added columns
In honor of city’s first Bishop, Saint Saturninus The integration of plan, elevation, and exterior was unheard of in earlier medieval architecture. Designed to accommodate large congregations along the pilgrimage route Two west façade (left) towers never completed Crossing tower: Gothic and later Segmentation of nave visible on exterior (buttresses)
“Pilgrimage church”: more space for pilgrims: longer nave, 2x side aisles, added transept, ambulatory, and more radiating chapels Each nave bay (space marked by architectural divisions) is ½ crossing square, while each aisle bay is ¼ crossing square (called square schematicism) Very dark- lacks a clerestory
Tribunes (upper story over aisle) over inner aisle and opening into the nave. Help buttress semi- circular cut-stone barrel vault Groin vaults absorb pressure from barrel vaults along nave Geometric floor plan reflected in nave walls Piers marking corners are with engaged half-columns
Revival of stonecarving Inspiration from abundant remains of ancient statues and reliefs throughout Rome’s northwestern provinces Motifs and compositions often originated from Carolingian and Ottonian ivory carving, metalwork, and manuscript illumination Bestiaries: monsters in artwork to remind of the chaos and deformity of a world without God’s order
By Wiligelmo One of Romanesque’s 1 st fully developed narrative reliefs From façade of Modena Cathedral, two levels of friezes Scenes from Genesis set against an architectural backdrop of a Late Roman/Early Christian sarcophagi The creation and temptation of Adam and Eve, like the doors of Bishop Bernward’s St. Michael’s of Hildensheim
Christ in a mandorla held up by angels Creation of Adam Creation of Eve Temptation of Eve by the serpent
The Chosen Ones The Damned Archangel, St. Michael, weighing the souls of dead and tipping them in the right direction while devils try to pull the other way
Tympanum sculpture of the Last Judgment Centered Christ in mandorla with 4 angels around him Presides over separation of Blessed and Damned Left: angel boosts one Blessed Right: those condemned to Hell Below: souls of the dead line up awaiting their fate Terror in demons with sharp claws, and unusual bending Sent a message to those entering the church who could not read “May this terror terrify those whom earthly error binds, for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be.” Signed not for fame, but for prayer from others for salvation
“Morgan”=owner, J. Pierpont Morgan, a financer and collector Sculpture in the round Christ Child: adult face, holds Bible in left hand, raising right in blessing Virgin Mary: Seated on wooden chair making her the “Throne of Wisdom” because it is technically Christ’s throne Byzantine: rigidly upright, strictly frontal, emotionless Once brightly-colored Similarities in facial features (nose, eyes, shape of face
Romanesque Painting Illuminated manuscripts and a few remaining ceilings or wall murals Outlined in black, painted in vibrant colors Exaggerrated, emphatic gestures Heads and hands usually the largest features Legs floating/graceful- dancerlike “floating” figures- fill the surface; no 3-D quality People more important than background figures Folds of cloth, drapery, used to indicate form Use of fantastical/mythical animals and beasts
Details the Norman defeat of Anglo-Saxons at Hastings in 1066 and Dukes of Normandy become kings of England Commissioned by Bishop Odo, half-brother of conquering Duke William Like Romanesque illumination: bordered with real and imaginary animals and Latin text Greco-Roman battle scene: horses with twisted necks and contorted bodies Scroll-like frieze like that of Trajan’s Column Linear patterning and flat color Animated Bayeux Tapestry
Hildegard von Bingen’s Vision, Destroyed; exists as a copy Bingen’s divine visions fome from heaven and pour down like flames She sits as an outhor portrait recording her vision Volmar, her scribe, waits by her side with a book Heavy black outlines Figures dominate archtiecture Expressive draper folds indicate arms and legs
Eadwine the Scribe, from the Eadwine Psalter, Self-portrait of monks who worked on this Psalter A generic portrait, not a real likeness Dressed as a monk with tonsured hair and swirling cape Enthroned on a sophisticated architectural throme (no ego on these guys, huh?) Right hand- paintbrush, Left hand- scraper to “erase” errors)