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Ch. 5 Domesticated Animals as Citizens Defend the claim that the appropriate way to recognizes the incorporation of domesticated animals into our society.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 5 Domesticated Animals as Citizens Defend the claim that the appropriate way to recognizes the incorporation of domesticated animals into our society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 5 Domesticated Animals as Citizens Defend the claim that the appropriate way to recognizes the incorporation of domesticated animals into our society is through citizenship, showing how the facts of domesticated make co- citizenship both morally necessary and practically feasible *Nearly all passages in this presentation are quoted from Zoopolis.*

2 2 Main Ideas of Citizenship Model 1) Domesticated animals must be seen as members of our community – Having brought such animals into our society, and deprived them of other possible forms of existence, we have a duty to include them in our social and political arrangements on fair terms – As such they have rights of membership- rights that go beyond the universal rights owed to all animals 2) The appropriate framework for these relational membership rights is the citizenship model given that domestic animals have the requisite capacities to be citizens: capacities to have and express a subjective good, to participate, and to cooperate *This information was obtained from p.101*

3 Rethinking Citizenship 3 basic capacities required by citizenship: – 1) the capacity to have a subjective good and to communicate it – 2) the capacity to comply with social norms/cooperation – 3) the capacity to participate in the co-authoring of laws * This information was obtained from p.103*

4 Can Domesticated Animals be Citizens? Dependent Agency: 1) the capacity to express their subjective good through various forms of behavior and communication 2) the capacity to comply with social norms through the evolution of trusting relationships 3) the capacity to participate in shaping terms of interaction * This information was obtained from p. 104*

5 Can Domesticated Animals be Citizens? Domestication only works for animals that are sociable, able to communicate, and to adapt to and trust humans, and domestication over time has worked to strengthen these capacities As a result domesticated animals are capable of forming relations with humans that allow them to manifest a subjective good, to cooperate, and to participate- to be citizens *This information was obtained from p *

6 Basic Socialization General Principles: – 1) Socialization is the responsibility of parents or states to recognize individuals as members of the community and to give them the skills and knowledge they need to thrive in that community – 2) Socialization is not a lifelong process of control and intervention but a temporary developmental process *This information was obtained from p. 125* Socialization is a right of membership and failure to socialize domesticated animals harms their chances of flourishing in human-animal society (p.123) Involves the basic skills/knowledge that individuals need in order to be accepted into social community (p. 123) Basic socialization in both directions is mandatory (humans and animals) *p.124*

7 Mobility & Sharing of Public Space Domesticated animal citizens have the right to share public space as well as a positive right to mobility (p ) 3 basic principles: (p.129) – 1) a strong presumption against any form of restraint or confinement, except in cases where individuals pose a threat to themselves or to the basic liberties of others – 2) a positive right to sufficient mobility providing access to an adequate range of options needed for a flourishing life – 3) opposition to restrictions on mobility even if they leave individuals with sufficient options if (a) they are adopted in order to express subordinate citizenship or (b) because certain groups were not considered when designing access to certain spaces

8 Duties of Protection Recognizing domesticated animals as co-citizens has implications for our duties to protect them from harm, including harm from humans, from other animals, and from accidents or natural disasters Citizens are entitled to the full benefit and protection of the law – Harm to animals should be criminalized- both deliberate harm and negligence resulting in harm – Duty to take steps to protect them from predators, disease, accidents, floods, or fires, etc *This information was obtained from p.132*

9 Use of Animal Products We can only use animals or benefit from them under conditions that are consistent with their agency and their membership status (p.135) Citizenship is a cooperative social project, one in which all are recognized as equals, all benefit from the goods of social life, and all, according to their ability and inclination, contribute to the general good (p.137) Need to ensure that mechanisms are in place to fully monitor and enforce the rights of such animals and to regulate commercial pressures that might erode these rights (p )

10 Predation/Diet Amongst our many duties to domesticated animals, we are responsible for ensuring that they have adequate nutrition (p.149) Some domesticated animals given greater scope for exercising agency, will be able to take care of many of their own nutritional needs (chickens, cows, goats, sheep, horses) (p.149) Others such as dogs and cats are dependent on us to provide for their nutritional needs (p.149) What matters is for them to have a diet that meets all of their nutritional needs and which is palatable and pleasing to them (p ) Dogs and cats do not have a right to food that involves the killing of other animals (p.150) Justice requires acknowledging the rights of domesticated animals but it also requires that domesticated animals, like all citizens, respect the basic liberties of all (p.150)

11 Use of Animal Labor For use of animal labor to be non-exploitative, the animal – must be in a position to give a clear indication that they enjoy the activity, – that they thrive on the stimulation and contact, and – that the work is not a price they need to pay to receive the love and care that are their due (and need) Work must be balanced with down time in which to engage in other activities and to socialize Working animals should have the same opportunity as human citizens have to control the conditions under which they contribute to society, and to follow their own inclinations in terms of how they live their lives and who they spend time with *This information was obtained from p.140*

12 Medical Care Health care is a right of membership in contemporary societies and domesticated animals have the right to be treated as members (p.142) We have duties to provide health care to domesticated animals and these duties would likely be fulfilled through a scheme of animal health insurance (p ) Animals are not in a position to give informed consent, so humans must make decisions on behalf of animals (p.143)

13 Sex & Reproduction As citizens, domesticated animals have the right not to have their sexual and reproductive activities unnecessarily restricted and the right to have their offspring cared for and protected by the larger, mixed human-animal society Domesticated animals also have the responsibility to exercise their rights in ways that do not impose unfair or unreasonable costs on others Restrictions can only be justified by reference to the interests of the individual while recognizing that these interests include being part of a cooperative social project which involves both rights and duties *This information was obtained from p *

14 Political Representation Requires that individuals internalize the basic rules of social life in order to enjoy its freedoms and opportunities (p.153) Domesticated animals have the capacity to participate in this process if assisted by those ‘collaborators’ who have learned how to interpret their expressions of preference (p.153) To ensure effective political representation of domesticated animals, will involve representation in the legislative process, and representation in land planning decisions or on governance boards for professions and public services (police, emergency services, medicine, law, urban planning, social services, etc) (p.154)

15 Objections 3 basic capacities required by citizenship: – 1) the capacity to have a subjective good and to communicate it – 2) the capacity to comply with social norms/cooperation – 3) the capacity to participate in the co-authoring of laws Mobility & Sharing of Public Space – The premise that “this need may be adequately met with large fenced ranges/pastures, and parks is in breach of “opposition to restrictions on mobility even if they leave individuals with sufficient options” Animals as Food – The policies regarding use of animals as products would mean use of animals for meats would be unjust and a breach in their rights as citizens. It is unlikely that the public will abandon the norm and cease to consume meats.

16 Objections Health Care – How do we owe animals universal healthcare if we do not supply that to many of our citizens? – How will this new expense be paid for? Predation – How can we expect animals to “respect the basic liberties of all?” – How do we ensure dogs and cats with predatory instincts do not hunt other animals? Welfare – A homeless shelter is for extenuating circumstances, yet that's the norm for "free" (stray) animals Political representation – “involve representation in the legislative process, and representation in land planning decisions or on governance boards for professions and public services (police, emergency services, medicine, law, urban planning, social services, etc)”


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