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William Shakespeare Personal History, The Globe Theatre, & London.

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Presentation on theme: "William Shakespeare Personal History, The Globe Theatre, & London."— Presentation transcript:

1 William Shakespeare Personal History, The Globe Theatre, & London

2 William Shakespeare: Born to a middle-class family in Stratford-upon- Avon. He was baptized on April 26, so his birthdate is generally accepted as April 23. Born to a middle-class family in Stratford-upon- Avon. He was baptized on April 26, so his birthdate is generally accepted as April 23. Not much is known about his early life; people did not consider playwrights important during that time. Not much is known about his early life; people did not consider playwrights important during that time. Attended Stratford Grammar School through the age of 14. He studied Latin and Greek, as well as British and World history (this is evident in his plays about historic figures like Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Richard III, and Henry IV) Attended Stratford Grammar School through the age of 14. He studied Latin and Greek, as well as British and World history (this is evident in his plays about historic figures like Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Richard III, and Henry IV)

3 Shakespeare’s Family: At the age of 18, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway (she was 26 and pregnant!). This was November of Daughter born in May of At the age of 18, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway (she was 26 and pregnant!). This was November of Daughter born in May of Had three children: Susanna, and Had three children: Susanna, and twins- Judith and Hamnet twins- Judith and Hamnet

4 are what scholars refer to as the Lost Years. They know little about what Shakespeare did or where he lived during this time are what scholars refer to as the Lost Years. They know little about what Shakespeare did or where he lived during this time. In 1592, there is evidence that he was a playwright and actor in London because his name appeared in a pamphlet. In 1592, there is evidence that he was a playwright and actor in London because his name appeared in a pamphlet.

5 Stratford -upon- Avon Where Shakespeare was born

6 Inside the House

7 Present Day Stratford-upon-Avon

8 We do know that in 1594, Shakespeare was a sharer (or stockholder) of a company called Lord Chamberlain’s Men because of a record of payment he and his fellow actors received for performing in Queen Elizabeth’s court. We do know that in 1594, Shakespeare was a sharer (or stockholder) of a company called Lord Chamberlain’s Men because of a record of payment he and his fellow actors received for performing in Queen Elizabeth’s court. Lord Chamberlain’s Men was one of the most popular acting companies in London. He was the leading member of this group for the rest of his life. Lord Chamberlain’s Men was one of the most popular acting companies in London. He was the leading member of this group for the rest of his life. By this time, at least six of his plays had been produced. By this time, at least six of his plays had been produced.

9 From mid-1592 to 1594, London often closed the public theatres because of repeated outbreaks of plague eliminating the need for new plays. From mid-1592 to 1594, London often closed the public theatres because of repeated outbreaks of plague eliminating the need for new plays. Shakespeare began to write poems. His first published poem was Venus and Adonis. It was a success. Shakespeare began to write poems. His first published poem was Venus and Adonis. It was a success. His second long poem was The Rape of Lucrece. It was also very popular, but these poems did not leave him with the same successes that his playwriting did. His second long poem was The Rape of Lucrece. It was also very popular, but these poems did not leave him with the same successes that his playwriting did. Public theatres reopened in 1594, and he began to write again. Public theatres reopened in 1594, and he began to write again.

10 In 1599, Shakespeare and six associates became owners of The Globe, a new outdoor theatre in the London suburb of Southwark. In 1599, Shakespeare and six associates became owners of The Globe, a new outdoor theatre in the London suburb of Southwark. One of the largest theatres in London; it held approximately 3,000 spectators. One of the largest theatres in London; it held approximately 3,000 spectators. In 1603, Queen Elizabeth I died. James VI of Scotland succeeded her and became James I, King of England. He issued a royal license (basically he was funding their company!) to Shakespeare and his fellow players…their company became the King’s Men. In return for his license, the men entertained the King’s court on a regular basis. In 1603, Queen Elizabeth I died. James VI of Scotland succeeded her and became James I, King of England. He issued a royal license (basically he was funding their company!) to Shakespeare and his fellow players…their company became the King’s Men. In return for his license, the men entertained the King’s court on a regular basis.

11 Great timing for James I because in 1603 the theatres were closed due to another outbreak of plague. Great timing for James I because in 1603 the theatres were closed due to another outbreak of plague. Between 1599 and 1608, Shakespeare wrote several comedies and almost all of his tragedies: Much Ado About Nothing and Twelfth Night (comedies); Henry V (history); and the tragedies Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello Between 1599 and 1608, Shakespeare wrote several comedies and almost all of his tragedies: Much Ado About Nothing and Twelfth Night (comedies); Henry V (history); and the tragedies Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello 1609: 150+ of Shakespeare’s sonnets were published 1609: 150+ of Shakespeare’s sonnets were published

12 During the last 8 years of his life, he only wrote four plays; The Tempest (1610), was supposedly his last play, but Henry VIII can be dated about During the last 8 years of his life, he only wrote four plays; The Tempest (1610), was supposedly his last play, but Henry VIII can be dated about He died on April 23, 1616 (same day he was born!) He died on April 23, 1616 (same day he was born!)

13 The Mystery of Shakespeare’s Death On the slab over his grave appear the words: On the slab over his grave appear the words: GOOD FRIEND FOR JESUS SAKE FORBEARE, TO DIGG THE DUST ENCLOASED HEARE. BLEST BE Ye MAN Yt SPARES THESE STONES, AND CURSED BE HE Yt MOVES MY BONES. This was there because during the Renaissance, when a burial ground became overcrowded, gravediggers would empty all the old graves to make room for new corpses. Shakespeare wanted his bones intact! NO ONE KNOWS HOW HE DIED…

14 Seven years after his death, the first edition of Shakespeare’s collected plays was published. This was called the First Folio. Seven years after his death, the first edition of Shakespeare’s collected plays was published. This was called the First Folio. More than 1,000 copies of the first printing were sold for the considerable sum of one pound each—equivalent to more than $50 in today’s currency. More than 1,000 copies of the first printing were sold for the considerable sum of one pound each—equivalent to more than $50 in today’s currency.

15 Fun Facts about good ol’ Will He is responsible for over 1,700 words that we use today, like box office, hurry, and critic. He is responsible for over 1,700 words that we use today, like box office, hurry, and critic. He is also responsible for many phrases that we use today like: He is also responsible for many phrases that we use today like: “Eaten out of house & home” or “Cruel to be kind.” “Eaten out of house & home” or “Cruel to be kind.” More Shakespearean words & phrases More Shakespearean words & phrases More Shakespearean words & phrases More Shakespearean words & phrases Suicide occurs an unlucky 13 times in his plays. Suicide occurs an unlucky 13 times in his plays. He is one of the most recognized icons from London, along with Big Ben, The Queen, and the double- decker buses. He is one of the most recognized icons from London, along with Big Ben, The Queen, and the double- decker buses. He was writing Romeo & Juliet at the same time he was writing A Midsummer Night’s Dream; therefore, there are many parallels and shared lines! He was writing Romeo & Juliet at the same time he was writing A Midsummer Night’s Dream; therefore, there are many parallels and shared lines!

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18 The Theatre and Society of the Time 1588: Under Elizabeth I, England defeated the Spanish Armada; England was becoming a dominant sea power and an emerging colonial empire. 1588: Under Elizabeth I, England defeated the Spanish Armada; England was becoming a dominant sea power and an emerging colonial empire. As the country increased in importance, her literature, art, and music began to flourish. As the country increased in importance, her literature, art, and music began to flourish. This time period was called: the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration, Age of Discovery, or the Elizabethan era. This time period was called: the Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration, Age of Discovery, or the Elizabethan era.

19 Renaissance (meaning “rebirth”): described the flourish of art, scholarship, and literature that took place during the 15 th and 16 th centuries in Europe (began in Italy in the 14 th century and came to England in the final two decades of the 15 th century) Renaissance (meaning “rebirth”): described the flourish of art, scholarship, and literature that took place during the 15 th and 16 th centuries in Europe (began in Italy in the 14 th century and came to England in the final two decades of the 15 th century) Reformation: the movement that began when King Henry VIII split from the Pope and Catholic Church of Rome and founded the Protestant Church of England Reformation: the movement that began when King Henry VIII split from the Pope and Catholic Church of Rome and founded the Protestant Church of England

20 Queen Elizabeth

21 “Now is the winter of our discontent…” –Richard III All of the historical movements are great, but it wasn’t the best time to live in England. All of the historical movements are great, but it wasn’t the best time to live in England. HUGE gap between the rich and poor HUGE gap between the rich and poor Most people can’t find jobs Most people can’t find jobs Famine and plague are everywhere Famine and plague are everywhere Population is growing faster than the crops Population is growing faster than the crops Economic recession across the continent Economic recession across the continent

22 Bubonic Plague a.k.a. “The Black Death” The plague was transmitted by the fleas that lived on rodents and animals (especially rats). The plague was transmitted by the fleas that lived on rodents and animals (especially rats). Could also be airborne; bad hygiene too! Could also be airborne; bad hygiene too! In 1563, an outbreak claimed 80,000 lives in England (20,000 in London alone) In 1563, an outbreak claimed 80,000 lives in England (20,000 in London alone) 1000 died weekly in August; by October it was 1800/week 1000 died weekly in August; by October it was 1800/week

23 Not even Queen Elizabeth was safe…in 1563, she moved her court to Windsor Castle, erected gallows, and ordered that anyone coming from London was to be hanged to prevent the spread. Not even Queen Elizabeth was safe…in 1563, she moved her court to Windsor Castle, erected gallows, and ordered that anyone coming from London was to be hanged to prevent the spread. You died within 2-4 days of infection You died within 2-4 days of infection

24 Speaking of plague… If you got sick during the Renaissance, you’d be smarter to consult a faith healer or a witch than a doctor. Doctors believed that illness resulted from an imbalance in the four humors (fluids) of the human body: bile, phlegm, choler, and blood. To restore balance, doctors removed blood by having leeches suck it out. Most popular operation: amputation without anesthesia of course Most popular operation: amputation without anesthesia of course

25 Entertain me, people! Leading amusements of the day: Leading amusements of the day: Bear or bull-baiting Bear or bull-baiting Rooster-fighting Rooster-fighting Brawling and rioting (thanks to the endless supply of brewskis) Brawling and rioting (thanks to the endless supply of brewskis) Witch burnings (marshmallows anyone?) Witch burnings (marshmallows anyone?) Public executions (severed head and all) Public executions (severed head and all) Theatre (including plays by some dude named Shakespeare) Theatre (including plays by some dude named Shakespeare)

26 All the World’s a Stage: Reign of Elizabeth I Reign of Elizabeth I Before the rise of permanent theatres, players would perform anywhere they could erect a stage and draw a crowd (village halls, inn yards, bear-baiting arenas, or privately for the nobles) Before the rise of permanent theatres, players would perform anywhere they could erect a stage and draw a crowd (village halls, inn yards, bear-baiting arenas, or privately for the nobles) 1576, actor James Burbage built England’s 1 st real theatre: “The Theatre” 1576, actor James Burbage built England’s 1 st real theatre: “The Theatre” Lord Chamberlain’s Men performed there from Lord Chamberlain’s Men performed there from

27 1594: London aldermen banned all playhouses in the city limits (Burbage died in 1597, and the landlord planned to dismantle The Theatre) 1594: London aldermen banned all playhouses in the city limits (Burbage died in 1597, and the landlord planned to dismantle The Theatre) His sons dismantled The Theatre themselves and hauled the pieces across the Thames River to a site in Southwark. Six months later The Globe Theatre opened (1599). His sons dismantled The Theatre themselves and hauled the pieces across the Thames River to a site in Southwark. Six months later The Globe Theatre opened (1599).

28 The Globe No surviving drawings or detailed written descriptions No surviving drawings or detailed written descriptions Shakespeare referred to it as “this wooden O” and open to the sky (no roof) Shakespeare referred to it as “this wooden O” and open to the sky (no roof) Building had to be small enough to make the actors heard, but large enough to seat 2,500 to 3,000 Building had to be small enough to make the actors heard, but large enough to seat 2,500 to 3,000 External dimensions: 80 x 80 feet External dimensions: 80 x 80 feet Interior: 55 x 55 feet Interior: 55 x 55 feet

29 Shakespeare’s Theatre… The GLOBE

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32 Staging Areas Stage= platform that extended into the pit Stage= platform that extended into the pit Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage Dressing & storage rooms in galleries behind & above stage second-level gallery= upper stage= famous balcony scene in Romeo & Juliet second-level gallery= upper stage= famous balcony scene in Romeo & Juliet Trap door= ghosts Trap door= ghosts “Heavens”= angelic beings “Heavens”= angelic beings

33 Actors (men only) performed a different play every afternoon. They had one week to learn their parts (a lead would have to learn roughly 800 lines a day). Actors (men only) performed a different play every afternoon. They had one week to learn their parts (a lead would have to learn roughly 800 lines a day). Average life of a play: 10 performances (but popular ones were performed more often) Average life of a play: 10 performances (but popular ones were performed more often) No performances on Sunday No performances on Sunday Shows ran from 2-5 pm every afternoon Shows ran from 2-5 pm every afternoon No intermissions, curtains, lighting or sets (trapdoors) No intermissions, curtains, lighting or sets (trapdoors) Not advertised (flag on top of theatre signaled the play and a trumpet sounded near 2 pm) Not advertised (flag on top of theatre signaled the play and a trumpet sounded near 2 pm)

34 Ticket prices depended on where you sat: Ticket prices depended on where you sat: Wealthy (educated/literate)? You sat in the upper balconies not necessarily to watch the play, but so others could see you. Wealthy (educated/literate)? You sat in the upper balconies not necessarily to watch the play, but so others could see you. Poor? You were known as a “groundling” and you had to stand in the pit during the entire performance Poor? You were known as a “groundling” and you had to stand in the pit during the entire performance There were no restrooms by the way…you brought your own clay pot in with you, or you used the back wall of the pit…good luck with that one. There were no restrooms by the way…you brought your own clay pot in with you, or you used the back wall of the pit…good luck with that one.

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