2NOMADDefinition: person who moves from place to place in search of foodTheme: Movement of people and goodsHistorical Connection: Paleolithic period. People traveled in small groups, and began to develop language, tools, and social structures.
3CULTURAL DIFFUSIONDefinition: the exchange of ideas, customs, goods, and technologies among cultures.Theme: Movement of people and goods. Culture and Intellectual Life. Economic systems. Science and technology.Historical Connection: People started to create alliances through trade. Communities began to develop. People began to settle in one area.
4TECHNOLOGYDefinition: tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs.Theme: Science and technology. Turning points. Change. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: People started to develop communities. Civilizations began to develop social systems. Government, religion, and writing.
5CIVILIZATIONDefinition: Community characterized by elements such as a system of writing, development of social classes, and cities.Theme: Change. Turning point. Political systems. Diversity and interdependence. Science and technology.Historical Connection: Systems of government, roads, cities, and art began to develop. Alliances and enemies began to surface.
6EMPIREDefinition: group of states or territories governed by one ruler.Theme: Turning point. Political system. Nationalism. Imperialism. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: Leaders started to display influence over large areas of land and people. Political systems began to lay the foundation for societies.
7DYNASTY Definition: ruling family Theme: Political systems. Historical Connections: Families began to display authority over long periods of time. Egyptians were famous for dynastic ruling classes.
8Polytheistic Definition: believing in many gods. Theme: Belief systems. Cultural and intellectual life.Historical Connection: Many early civilizations practiced this form of religion. The Hindu religion is polytheistic. The early Greeks and Romans were also polytheistic.
9DIRECT DEMOCRACYDefinition: system of government in which citizens participate directly rather than through elected representatives.Theme: Political systems. Nationalism.Historical Connection: The ancient Greeks used this method of democracy. Men were encouraged to participate in the day-to-day running of the government.
10HELLINISTICDefinition: type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great’s conquests, that blended eastern and western influences.Theme: Change. Turning point. Geography. Political system. Imperialism. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: This assimilation allowed Alexander to peacefully incorporate many people into the Greek world.
11REPUPLICDefinition: system of government in which officials are chosen by the people.Theme: Political system.Historical Connection: The United States is based on the democratic values that the Early Roman Republic initiated.
12REINCARNATIONDefinition: in Hinduism, the rebirth of the soul in a new body.Theme: Belief system.Historical Connection: This belief structure teaches people that their actions determine whether or not they will return to Earth to try and achieve Nirvana. Gandhi was a Hindu.
13KARMADefinition: in Hinduism, all the deeds of one’s life that affect existence in the next life.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual lifeHistorical Connection: This belief is instrumental in helping the ruling class to keep order by utilizing religion. The largest Hindu population is located in India.
14DHARMADefinition: in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual lifeHistorical Connection: The concept of Dharma helps people to share religious values and beliefs. It ties people together under one religious set of codes of conduct.
15NirvanaDefinition: in Buddhism, union with the universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth.Theme: Belief systems.Historical Connection: The spread of Buddhism helped to create a way of living one’s life that was based on compassion and kindness. Buddhism originated in India then spread to China.
16MONOTHEISTIC Definition: believing in one god. Theme: Belief system. Historical Connection: When the Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt they began to worship one god, the protector. The religion they began was the foundation for Judaism (Jewish).
17Messiah Definition: Jewish word for savior sent by god. Theme: Belief system.Historical Connection: Jesus was believed to be the new messiah sent by his father, God. The Romans and Jews were worried about Jesus’ popularity, so they crucified him
18CaliphDefinition: successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the MuslimsTheme: Belief system. Political systems. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: After the death of Muhammad in 632, the Islamic faith began to grow in popularity throughout the Arab lands. Abu Bakr was the first caliph.
19FEUDALISMDefinition: system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service and other support to a greater lordTheme: Economic systems. Political systems.Historical Connection: This practice was commonly practiced during the Middle ages, or medieval period ( s).
20MANORIALISMDefinition: an economic system structured around a lord’s manor or estate.Theme: Geography. Economic Systems.Historical Connection: During the medieval period this was a common way for lords to keep the peasants economically tied to the farmland.
21CHIVALRYDefinition: the code of conduct followed by knights during the Middle Ages.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual life. Justice and Human rightsHistorical Connections: In medieval times there were many wars. The chivalrous code laid the foundation for training knights for battle, as well as being brave, loyal, and true to their word.
22SERF Definition: in medieval Europe, peasant bound to the lord’s land. Theme: Political systems. Justice and human rights. ConflictHistorical Connections: In the Middle Ages the serfs were instrumental to the success of the manor, or estate. Serfs were not slaves.
23EXCOMMUNICATEDefinition: to exclude from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws.Theme: Belief systems. Conflict.Historical Connection: Throughout history Popes often times “kicked-out” people for not doing what the Church wanted them to do.
24SECULARDefinition: having to do with worldly rather than religious matters.Theme: Political system. Economic system. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: During the Middle Ages two distinct Church's grew to power. The Roman Catholic church had authority and control over medieval society outside of the church.
25MONASTARIESDefinition: community where men or women focus on spiritual goals.Theme: Belief systems. Culture and intellectual life. Diversity and interdependence.Historical Connection: Monasteries were instrumental at preserving important written documents, and helping the poor.
26SHOGUN Definition: in Japanese feudal system, top military commander. Theme: Belief system. Geography. Political systemHistorical Connection: The shoguns set up dynasties, and exerted control over the people.
27DAIMYODefinition: in feudal Japan, warrior lords who held a place below the shogun.Theme: Belief system. Political system.Historical Connections: These individuals were given land to watch over by the shoguns. They had to lend military support in exchange.
28SAMURAIDefinition: member of the warrior class in Japanese feudal society.Theme: Belief system. Political system. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connections: Samurai means “those who serve”. Samurais held strict codes of conduct, loyalty and honor were stressed.
29BUSHIDO “The Way of the Warrior” Definition: code of conduct for samurai during feudal period in Japan.Theme: Belief system. Change. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: The Daimyo used a samurai’s pledge to be loyal as a way to keep order on their lands.
30GUILDDefinition: A type of trade association of merchants or artisans that was active in the Middle ages.Theme: Economic system. Culture & intellectual life.Historical Connection: Guilds were the equivalent of modern day unions. Guilds would protect their members and make sure their interests were secured.
31Apprentice Definition: young person learning a trade from a master. Theme: Economic system. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: families would often times give their children to a master to ensure their future as a professional.
32CapitalismDefinition: Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit.Theme: Economic system. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: Capitalism began to flourish towards the end of the Middle Ages. Merchants began to have control over society due to their ability to generate income.
33HumanismDefinition: Intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than religious ones.Theme: Change. Turning point. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: People during this period began to develop theories on how to better one’s life. Also, the arts began to flourish.
34Common LawDefinition: Uniform system of justice, developed in England, based on court decisions that became accepted legal principlesTheme: Political system. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: This belief that all men were equal under the law was instrumental in the development of modern law making policies.
35Sultan Definition: Muslim ruler. Theme: Belief system. Political System.Historical Connection: The Turks were the first to refer to their leaders as Sultans. Suleiman was one of the most famous Turkish sultans.
36Mosque Definition: Muslim house of worship. Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: The most famous Mosque is located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Islamic law states that all able Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lives.
37ImperialismDefinition: Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country of region.Theme: Economic system. Political system. Conflict.Historical Connection: Powerful European nations began to spread their power throughout the world in attempts to strengthen their control.
38SepoyDefinition: Indian soldier serving in the army set up by the British or French East India companies.Theme: Turning point. Political system. Imperialism.Historical Connection: When the British made alliances with local Indian leaders they incorporated the locals into the Imperialistic military force. Making the locals dependent on Imperial protection.
39ConquistadorDefinition: name, meaning “conqueror”, for certain explorers of the 1500s and 1600s.Theme: Change. Turning point.Historical Connection: Hernan Cortes was one of histories most famous conquistadors. He was responsible for the destruction of the Aztec empire.
40Plantation Definition: Large estate ran by an owner or overseer. Theme: Economic system. Geography.Historical Connection: Slaves were the primary work force on most southern American plantations.
41EncomiendaDefinition: System created by Spanish government in the Americas allowing colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native AmericansTheme: Imperialism. Economic system. Conflict.Historical Connection: Conquistadors would force Indians to plant crops under threat of death. Spanish began to import African slaves when many Indians died.
42MercantilismDefinition: Economic policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its national wealth.Theme: Economic system. Political system. Nationalism.Historical Connection: many of the early European civilizations used this method to exert control over colonies in the Americas.