2 NOMADDefinition: person who moves from place to place in search of foodTheme: Movement of people and goodsHistorical Connection: Paleolithic period. People traveled in small groups, and began to develop language, tools, and social structures.
3 CULTURAL DIFFUSIONDefinition: the exchange of ideas, customs, goods, and technologies among cultures.Theme: Movement of people and goods. Culture and Intellectual Life. Economic systems. Science and technology.Historical Connection: People started to create alliances through trade. Communities began to develop. People began to settle in one area.
4 TECHNOLOGYDefinition: tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs.Theme: Science and technology. Turning points. Change. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: People started to develop communities. Civilizations began to develop social systems. Government, religion, and writing.
5 CIVILIZATIONDefinition: Community characterized by elements such as a system of writing, development of social classes, and cities.Theme: Change. Turning point. Political systems. Diversity and interdependence. Science and technology.Historical Connection: Systems of government, roads, cities, and art began to develop. Alliances and enemies began to surface.
6 EMPIREDefinition: group of states or territories governed by one ruler.Theme: Turning point. Political system. Nationalism. Imperialism. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: Leaders started to display influence over large areas of land and people. Political systems began to lay the foundation for societies.
7 DYNASTY Definition: ruling family Theme: Political systems. Historical Connections: Families began to display authority over long periods of time. Egyptians were famous for dynastic ruling classes.
8 Polytheistic Definition: believing in many gods. Theme: Belief systems. Cultural and intellectual life.Historical Connection: Many early civilizations practiced this form of religion. The Hindu religion is polytheistic. The early Greeks and Romans were also polytheistic.
9 DIRECT DEMOCRACYDefinition: system of government in which citizens participate directly rather than through elected representatives.Theme: Political systems. Nationalism.Historical Connection: The ancient Greeks used this method of democracy. Men were encouraged to participate in the day-to-day running of the government.
10 HELLINISTICDefinition: type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great’s conquests, that blended eastern and western influences.Theme: Change. Turning point. Geography. Political system. Imperialism. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: This assimilation allowed Alexander to peacefully incorporate many people into the Greek world.
11 REPUPLICDefinition: system of government in which officials are chosen by the people.Theme: Political system.Historical Connection: The United States is based on the democratic values that the Early Roman Republic initiated.
12 REINCARNATIONDefinition: in Hinduism, the rebirth of the soul in a new body.Theme: Belief system.Historical Connection: This belief structure teaches people that their actions determine whether or not they will return to Earth to try and achieve Nirvana. Gandhi was a Hindu.
13 KARMADefinition: in Hinduism, all the deeds of one’s life that affect existence in the next life.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual lifeHistorical Connection: This belief is instrumental in helping the ruling class to keep order by utilizing religion. The largest Hindu population is located in India.
14 DHARMADefinition: in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual lifeHistorical Connection: The concept of Dharma helps people to share religious values and beliefs. It ties people together under one religious set of codes of conduct.
15 NirvanaDefinition: in Buddhism, union with the universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth.Theme: Belief systems.Historical Connection: The spread of Buddhism helped to create a way of living one’s life that was based on compassion and kindness. Buddhism originated in India then spread to China.
16 MONOTHEISTIC Definition: believing in one god. Theme: Belief system. Historical Connection: When the Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt they began to worship one god, the protector. The religion they began was the foundation for Judaism (Jewish).
17 Messiah Definition: Jewish word for savior sent by god. Theme: Belief system.Historical Connection: Jesus was believed to be the new messiah sent by his father, God. The Romans and Jews were worried about Jesus’ popularity, so they crucified him
18 CaliphDefinition: successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the MuslimsTheme: Belief system. Political systems. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: After the death of Muhammad in 632, the Islamic faith began to grow in popularity throughout the Arab lands. Abu Bakr was the first caliph.
19 FEUDALISMDefinition: system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service and other support to a greater lordTheme: Economic systems. Political systems.Historical Connection: This practice was commonly practiced during the Middle ages, or medieval period ( s).
20 MANORIALISMDefinition: an economic system structured around a lord’s manor or estate.Theme: Geography. Economic Systems.Historical Connection: During the medieval period this was a common way for lords to keep the peasants economically tied to the farmland.
21 CHIVALRYDefinition: the code of conduct followed by knights during the Middle Ages.Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual life. Justice and Human rightsHistorical Connections: In medieval times there were many wars. The chivalrous code laid the foundation for training knights for battle, as well as being brave, loyal, and true to their word.
22 SERF Definition: in medieval Europe, peasant bound to the lord’s land. Theme: Political systems. Justice and human rights. ConflictHistorical Connections: In the Middle Ages the serfs were instrumental to the success of the manor, or estate. Serfs were not slaves.
23 EXCOMMUNICATEDefinition: to exclude from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws.Theme: Belief systems. Conflict.Historical Connection: Throughout history Popes often times “kicked-out” people for not doing what the Church wanted them to do.
24 SECULARDefinition: having to do with worldly rather than religious matters.Theme: Political system. Economic system. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: During the Middle Ages two distinct Church's grew to power. The Roman Catholic church had authority and control over medieval society outside of the church.
25 MONASTARIESDefinition: community where men or women focus on spiritual goals.Theme: Belief systems. Culture and intellectual life. Diversity and interdependence.Historical Connection: Monasteries were instrumental at preserving important written documents, and helping the poor.
26 SHOGUN Definition: in Japanese feudal system, top military commander. Theme: Belief system. Geography. Political systemHistorical Connection: The shoguns set up dynasties, and exerted control over the people.
27 DAIMYODefinition: in feudal Japan, warrior lords who held a place below the shogun.Theme: Belief system. Political system.Historical Connections: These individuals were given land to watch over by the shoguns. They had to lend military support in exchange.
28 SAMURAIDefinition: member of the warrior class in Japanese feudal society.Theme: Belief system. Political system. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connections: Samurai means “those who serve”. Samurais held strict codes of conduct, loyalty and honor were stressed.
29 BUSHIDO “The Way of the Warrior” Definition: code of conduct for samurai during feudal period in Japan.Theme: Belief system. Change. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: The Daimyo used a samurai’s pledge to be loyal as a way to keep order on their lands.
30 GUILDDefinition: A type of trade association of merchants or artisans that was active in the Middle ages.Theme: Economic system. Culture & intellectual life.Historical Connection: Guilds were the equivalent of modern day unions. Guilds would protect their members and make sure their interests were secured.
31 Apprentice Definition: young person learning a trade from a master. Theme: Economic system. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: families would often times give their children to a master to ensure their future as a professional.
32 CapitalismDefinition: Economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit.Theme: Economic system. Movement of people and goods.Historical Connection: Capitalism began to flourish towards the end of the Middle Ages. Merchants began to have control over society due to their ability to generate income.
33 HumanismDefinition: Intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than religious ones.Theme: Change. Turning point. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: People during this period began to develop theories on how to better one’s life. Also, the arts began to flourish.
34 Common LawDefinition: Uniform system of justice, developed in England, based on court decisions that became accepted legal principlesTheme: Political system. Justice and human rights.Historical Connection: This belief that all men were equal under the law was instrumental in the development of modern law making policies.
35 Sultan Definition: Muslim ruler. Theme: Belief system. Political System.Historical Connection: The Turks were the first to refer to their leaders as Sultans. Suleiman was one of the most famous Turkish sultans.
36 Mosque Definition: Muslim house of worship. Theme: Belief system. Culture and intellectual life.Historical Connection: The most famous Mosque is located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Islamic law states that all able Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lives.
37 ImperialismDefinition: Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country of region.Theme: Economic system. Political system. Conflict.Historical Connection: Powerful European nations began to spread their power throughout the world in attempts to strengthen their control.
38 SepoyDefinition: Indian soldier serving in the army set up by the British or French East India companies.Theme: Turning point. Political system. Imperialism.Historical Connection: When the British made alliances with local Indian leaders they incorporated the locals into the Imperialistic military force. Making the locals dependent on Imperial protection.
39 ConquistadorDefinition: name, meaning “conqueror”, for certain explorers of the 1500s and 1600s.Theme: Change. Turning point.Historical Connection: Hernan Cortes was one of histories most famous conquistadors. He was responsible for the destruction of the Aztec empire.
40 Plantation Definition: Large estate ran by an owner or overseer. Theme: Economic system. Geography.Historical Connection: Slaves were the primary work force on most southern American plantations.
41 EncomiendaDefinition: System created by Spanish government in the Americas allowing colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native AmericansTheme: Imperialism. Economic system. Conflict.Historical Connection: Conquistadors would force Indians to plant crops under threat of death. Spanish began to import African slaves when many Indians died.
42 MercantilismDefinition: Economic policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its national wealth.Theme: Economic system. Political system. Nationalism.Historical Connection: many of the early European civilizations used this method to exert control over colonies in the Americas.