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Llad Phillips1 The Family and Delinquency. Llad Phillips2 The Family and Delinquency What is the role of the family in causing or preventing delinquency?

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Presentation on theme: "Llad Phillips1 The Family and Delinquency. Llad Phillips2 The Family and Delinquency What is the role of the family in causing or preventing delinquency?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Llad Phillips1 The Family and Delinquency

2 Llad Phillips2 The Family and Delinquency What is the role of the family in causing or preventing delinquency? What is the role of the family in causing or preventing delinquency? How important is the family in considering possible causes of delinquency? How important is the family in considering possible causes of delinquency?

3 Llad Phillips3 The Importance of Causality A theme in this course

4 Reference: Lecture Six

5 Reference: Lecture Four

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7 Reference: Lecture Six

8 Llad Phillips8 Family Education System Community Social Institutions Shaping Youth

9 Llad Phillips9 Viewpoints About the Family and Delinquency Travis Hirschi: a weak child-parent bond or attachment explains delinquency(1969) Travis Hirschi: a weak child-parent bond or attachment explains delinquency(1969) Joseph Rankin: homes with both biological parents missing explains running away, truancy, and auto theft(1983) Joseph Rankin: homes with both biological parents missing explains running away, truancy, and auto theft(1983) Sheppard Kellam, M. Ensminger, and R. J. Turner: Being raised by a mother alone explains delinquency(1977) Sheppard Kellam, M. Ensminger, and R. J. Turner: Being raised by a mother alone explains delinquency(1977) Source: Glenn C. Loury, Ch 1 of Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, eds. James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury

10 Llad Phillips10 Trends Affecting Families Changes in Family Structure

11 Source: US Statistical Abstract

12 Llad Phillips12 Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC Marriage Rates

13 Llad Phillips13 Number of Divorces and Children Affected Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC

14 Llad Phillips14 Age Specific Divorce Rates, men and Women Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC

15 Llad Phillips15 Divorce Rates by Duration of Marriage Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC

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20 Source: US Statistical Abstract

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26 Source: Glenn C. Loury, Ch 1 of Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, eds. James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury

27 Llad Phillips27 Post World War II Phenomenon “In 1925, approximately 85 perent of black families living in Harlem were intact, and the teenage mother raising her children alone was virtually unknown...” “In 1925, approximately 85 perent of black families living in Harlem were intact, and the teenage mother raising her children alone was virtually unknown...” Source: Glenn C. Loury, Ch 1 of Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, eds. James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury

28 Llad Phillips28 July 

29 Source: Glenn C. Loury, Ch 1 of Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, eds. James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury

30 Source: Glenn C. Loury, Ch 1 of Families, Schools, and Delinquency Prevention, eds. James Q. Wilson and Glenn C. Loury

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32 Llad Phillips32 Birth Rates for Unmarried Women By Age of Mother Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC

33 Llad Phillips33 Per Cent Low Birth Weight By Age of Mother Source: Center for Disease Control, CDC

34 Llad Phillips34 “The Rotten Kid Theorem” Reference: Jack Hirshleifer, “The Expanding Domain of Economics” Reference: Jack Hirshleifer, “The Expanding Domain of Economics”  Figure 1

35 Llad Phillips35 Daughter’s Income Father’s Income

36 Llad Phillips36 Daughter’s Income, Y D Father’s Income, Y F Daughter’s Selfish Preferences: U D = U D (Y D ) Good Better Best

37 Llad Phillips37 Daughter’s Income Father’s Income Family Joint Income Opportunities When Both the Child and Parent Agree

38 Llad Phillips38 R Short-sighted selfish daughter prefers point R Daughter’s Income Father’s Income

39 Llad Phillips39 Daughter’s Income Father’s Income Family Income = Daughter’s Income + Father’s Income

40 Father’s Income R J Daughter’s Income Family Income Is Maximum At Point J

41 Llad Phillips41 How Does the Parent Induce the Selfish Child to Act in the Family Interest? Did King Lear Have It Right?

42 Llad Phillips42 Daughter’s Income Father’s Income Father’s Altruistic Preferences: U F = U F (Y D, Y F )

43 Llad Phillips43 Why Does The Parent Care For The Child? Darwinian (evolutionary) motive: survival of the genes Darwinian (evolutionary) motive: survival of the genes

44 Father’s Income R J Daughter’s Income A If the father is sufficiently altruistic, then the daughter’s enlightened self-interest is to prefer point A, and she can be induced to behave in a cooperative way, allowing point J that leads to point A

45 Father’s Income R J Daughter’s Income B If the father is insufficiently altruistic, then the daughter will prefer point R to point B and, as a result, family income and fortunes will be lower

46 Llad Phillips46 So, Love, Not Greed, Makes the World Go ‘Round In what kind of environment does love and caring flourish? In what kind of environment does love and caring flourish?  both biological parents are present  educated, enlightened self-interest  a family with enough time and resources to care for one another

47 Llad Phillips47 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth survey of year olds survey of year olds self-report information about contact with the criminal justice system for self-report information about contact with the criminal justice system for  ever stopped by the police  ever charged with a crime  ever convicted of a crime family income family income family structure when youth was age 14 family structure when youth was age 14

48 14-23 years of age Report: never stopped Report: ever stopped 28.5% Report: ever charged 17.4% Report: never charged Report: never convicted Report: ever convicted 10.1% National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)

49 Llad Phillips49 NLSY: Family Structure, Age 14 4,927 boys and young men, ages Source: William Comanor and Llad Phillips, “The Effect of Family Structure on Teen Delinquency”

50 Llad Phillips50 NLSY: Family Structure, Age girls and young women, ages 14-19, never married Source: William Comanor and Llad Phillips, “The Effect of Family Structure on Teen Delinquency”

51 Llad Phillips51 So, Love, Not Greed, Makes the World Go ‘Round In what kind of environment does love and caring flourish? In what kind of environment does love and caring flourish?  both biological parents are present  educated, enlightened self-interest  a family with enough time and resources to care for one another

52 Llad Phillips52 The Importance of Social Institutions Family: social control; human capital Family: social control; human capital School: social control; human capital School: social control; human capital Religious organizations: moral compliance Religious organizations: moral compliance Community groups and centers Community groups and centers

53 Llad Phillips53 Question: Why are people violent? Before the agricultural societies in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley, people were hunters and gatherers and shepherds and tended to fear strangers (And fight them) Paul Seabright, The Company of Strangers, A Natural History of Economic Life(2004) Princeton U. Before the agricultural societies in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley, people were hunters and gatherers and shepherds and tended to fear strangers (And fight them) Paul Seabright, The Company of Strangers, A Natural History of Economic Life(2004) Princeton U. After people settled down as farmers they needed social institutions to help them interact with strangers After people settled down as farmers they needed social institutions to help them interact with strangers  Markets allowed people to deal productively with strangers  Legal systems and governments allowed settlement of disputes Adam Smith; The Wealth of Nations(1776) Adam Smith; The Wealth of Nations(1776)  “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.”

54 Llad Phillips54 THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America

55 Llad Phillips55 What Leads to the Loss of Social Control?

56 Llad Phillips56 Social Control of Citizenry Civil law and authority Civil law and authority  First line of defense: moral compliance and good citizenship  Second line of defense: deterrence (the threat of punishment)  Third line of defense: detention Martial law and authority Martial law and authority  Fourth line of defense: National Guard and the Army

57 Llad Phillips57 Percent Control    Moral Compliance DeterrenceDetention Riot Civil Law Martial Law National Guard

58 Llad Phillips58 Why Is the Imprisonment Rate So High in the USA? 0.74 % 0.74 %

59 Llad Phillips59 The U.S. Incarceration Rate is Higher than for Russia, and South Africa; 7 times Italy and 8 times France

60 Llad Phillips60 Is It Because the US Murder Rate Is So High?

61 Llad Phillips61 #24 USA 0.04 per 1000

62 Llad Phillips62 Is It Because the US Crime Rate Is So High?

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64 Llad Phillips64 What Are We Afraid Of?

65 Llad Phillips65 Percent Control    Moral Compliance DeterrenceDetention Riot Civil Law Martial Law National Guard  0.74% Prison

66 Llad Phillips66 We Are In the Third Line of Defense: Detention Are we close to the edge? Are we close to the edge? Are we in danger of slipping out of civil authority? Are we in danger of slipping out of civil authority?  Instances- 1992: LA riot: worse than the 1965 Watts riot  13 dead  192 injured  Governor Pete Wilson activated more than 2000 National Guardsmen, mostly military police, to secure areas in Los Angeles

67 Llad Phillips67 That’s All Folks

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