A Brief Biography A Brief Biography ► Mandela's words, "The struggle is my life," are not to be taken lightly. Nelson Mandela personifies struggle. He is still leading the fight against apartheid with extraordinary vigor and resilience after spending nearly three decades of his life behind bars. He has sacrificed his private life and his youth for his people, and remains South Africa's best known and loved hero.
► Mandela has held numerous positions in the ANC: ANCYL secretary (1948); ANCYL president (1950); ANC Transvaal president (1952); deputy national president (1952) and ANC president (1991). ► He was born at Qunu, near Umtata on 18 July 1918.
► In 1944 he helped found the ANC Youth League, whose Program of Action was adopted by the ANC in 1949. Program of ActionProgram of Action ► Mandela was elected national volunteer-in- chief of the 1952 Defiance Campaign. He traveled the country organizing resistance to discriminatory legislation.
► When the ANC was banned after the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, he was detained until 1961 when he went underground to lead a campaign for a new national convention.
► In 1962 Mandela left the country for military training in Algeria and to arrange training for other MK members. ► On his return he was arrested for leaving the country illegally and for incitement to strike. He conducted his own defence. He was convicted and jailed for five years in November 1962. While serving his sentence, he was charged, in the Rivonia trial, with sabotage and sentenced to life imprisonment.
► 1993 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Excerpt from the Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech "We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people who dared to rise up against a social system whose very essence is war, violence, racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people." ► In 1994, he was elected President of South Africa
► It is significant that shortly after his release on Sunday 11 February 1990, Mandela and his delegation agreed to the suspension of armed struggle. ► Mandela has honorary degrees from more than 50 international universities and is chancellor of the University of the North. ► He was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May 1994 - June 1999 ► Nelson Mandela retired from Public life in June 1999. He currently resides in his birth place - Qunu, Transkei.
Warming-up questions ► 1.How much do you know about Nelson Mandela? ► 2. What do you think is his greatest contribution to his country and whole human being? ► 3. What personality do you find about Mandela from the text? ► 4. Do you find any charisma of him as a leader and husband?
Structure: ► Part 1: Description of his gardening experience (para. 1- 8 ) ► The gardening gives him satisfaction, offers a taste of freedom, and makes him strong physically. The and mentally.
► Part 2: Significance of his gardening experience (Para. 9 - the end) ► It has become a metaphor and gives him inspiration on how to be a good revolutionary leader and how to nourish important human relationship
Questions for Text Appreciation ► 1. “ one can feel fulfilled by washing one ’ s clothes …. ” what is meant by “ feel fulfilled …” in this sentence, and why does he say so? (Para. 2) ► 2. What does the important tasks outside of prison refer to? How can he feel the sane pride in doing small things inside prison? (Para.2) ► 3. Why do people say that Mandela “ was a miner at heart ” ? (Para.4) ► 4. “ in some way, I saw the garden as a metaphor for certain aspects of my life. ” what is being compared? (Para.9) ► 5. Why does he have a mixture of feelings when he writes to Winnie?
Language understanding ► The end of manual work is liberating. ► I felt liberated from the manual work. ► I found Dickens ’ s novel very interesting. I was ____. ► The news was very disappointing. I felt terribly ______. ► The result is a bit surprising. Everybody was ______. ► The whole experience was exciting. We all got extremely ______.
Language understanding ► survive 比 …… 活得长， 幸存 ► vi. to remain alive or in existence: ► ----Few survived after the flood. ► ----Books have survived from the time of the Egyptians. ► vt. to live longer than; outlive: ► ----He survived his wife for many years. ► to live or persist through ► ----The house survived the storm. ► ----He did not long survive his humiliation. ► the survival of the fittest, hopes of survival ► the only survivor of the shipwreck ► send help to the survivors of the earthquake ► One must develop ways to take satisfaction in one ’ s daily life. ► take satisfaction in (doing) sth. ► to learn to enjoy sth.
More Phrases: More Phrases: ► find satisfaction in ► feel satisfaction at ► to sb.'s satisfaction (to the satisfaction of sb.) ► ► satisfy, satisfied, satisfying, satisfactory satisfaction ► I had a feeling of _____ when the work was finished. ► Mr. Knight give a _____ smile. ► All the information was not enough to ___ me. ► I am not ____ with the present situation. ► After a ____ meal, you no longer feel hungry. ► That certainly seems a ____ explanation.
Language understanding ► He is an enthusiastic reformer _at_ heart. ► I must get this poem _by_ heart. ► The words were spoken _from_ the depths of her heart. ► He has lost his heart _to_ a very pretty young girl. ► heart and soul ► heart attack ► break one ’ s heart
Language understanding ► contact ► contact ► Finally he managed to get into contact with him. ► The journalist has a contact in Paris. ► ► v. ► I shall contact you by telephone on Friday. ► be in [out of] contact with ► lose contact with ► contact lenses ► Contact person
Language understanding ► Decline v. ► to slope or move downwards ► About 2 miles east, the land begins to decline towards the river. ► to move from a better to a worse position, or from higher to lower ► His power/health/influence has begun to decline now that he is old. ► to refuse, usu. politely; be unwilling ► We asked them to come to our party, but they declined (the invitation). ► ► The minister declined to make a statement to the newspapers.
Language understanding ► Decline n. ► There is a sharp decline in interest in sports in our town. ► She went into a decline and soon died. ► ► decline, to refuse politely, formal word ► refuse, to say or show one is unwilling to give or accept sth. general word. ► reject, to refuse to accept, submit to, believe, or make use of, strong word
Language understanding ► refuse/decline an invitation; ► refuse permissions; ► decline, reject, or turn down a suggestion; ► refuse, decline, reject, or turn down an offer; ► reject or turn down a plan or proposal. ► must decline in words: ► The horse rejected/refused the apple.
Language understanding ► Pursue: ► He had set his heart on pursuing his studies abroad. ► We have always pursued a friendly policy towards the Japanese people. ► He has been pursued by misfortune. ► He pursued the river to its source. ► closely pursue the enemy ► resolutely pursue knowledge ► pursue a 4-year course of study at a college ► pursue the study of English for five years ► prudently pursue the plan ► After a pursuit lasting all day we finally caught up with them.
Language understanding ► fulfill ► The new cleanser completely fulfilled its purpose. ► The doctor ’ s instructions must be fulfilled exactly. ► She succeeded in fulfilling herself both as an actress and a mother. ► Fulfill a task ahead of schedule ► fulfill a promise to the letter ► After many years, his plans came to fulfillment. ► The fulfillment of my dream is apparently as far off as ever.
Language understanding ► Constant ► He drove at a constant speed. ► A thermostat keeps the temperature constant. ► The machinery requires constant maintenance. ► constant arguments ► under constant attack in the newspapers ► a constant friend ► constancy of temperature
Language understanding ► flourish ► crops flourish in rich soil. ► He is flourishing in his new job. ► The British Empire flourished in the 19th century. ► The magazine was in full flourish then.
Language understanding ► endue ► They vowed their love would endure for ever. ► They had spent three days in the desert without water, and could not endure much longer. ► Few of the runners endured to the finish. ► She endures many discomforts without complaint. ► Cheap cloth has little endurance. ► His cruelty is beyond endurance.
Language understanding ► eliminate ► She went through the typescript carefully to eliminate all errors from it. ► We eliminate most of the runners in the heats; only the best run in the final. ► The platform bridge over the railroad tracks eliminated danger in crossing. ► He was distressed at the elimination from the contest.
Language understanding nourish nourish ► nourish hope in one ’ s heart ► nourish the baby on healthy mother ’ s milk ► nourish an infant with milk ► The flowers have withered away/up. ► Older people are complaining that the old ethical values are withering away. ► The wound is still tender. ► tender meat a tender heart ► a child of tender years ► She has a tenderness for cats.
Language understanding ► manual ► manual skill (adj.) ► a manual worker (adj.) ► a manual for students (n.) ► Of or relating to the hands ► A small reference book, especially one giving instructions. ► Employing human rather than mechanical energy: ► a pocket reference manual ► the service manual ► manual industry manual labor manual training ► manual industry manual labor manual training
Language understanding ► Bar ► The bar of soap slipped from his grasp. ► Poor health may be a bar to success in life. ► After finishing here legal studies she was called to the bar. ► He opened a snack bar. ► He barred all the doors and windows of his house. ► My father barred smoking at the dinner-table.
Language understanding ► At length ► * After some time; eventually: ► At length we arrived at our destination. ► * For a considerable time; fully: ► spoke at length about the court ruling. ► More phrases about length ► *cannot see beyond the length of one's nose ► find [have, get, know, take] the length of sb.'s foot ► keep sb. at arm's length
Topics for discussion ► What do you think made Mandela such a remarkable person? There are quite a few people who think that he should be considered the man of the 20th century. Do you agree? Why or why not? ► In the last paragraph, Mandela wrote, “ Sometimes there is nothing one can do to save something that must die. ” Do you agree? Why or why not?
Homework ► Retell the story. ► Recite Para.6-8. ► Do all the exercises.