Presentation on theme: "Friday, December 7 th Last day if instruction for the semester!!!!! YEAH! Today: Chocolate, Sugar and tea Looking at a few videos of how it is made…. Grades!"— Presentation transcript:
Friday, December 7 th Last day if instruction for the semester!!!!! YEAH! Today: Chocolate, Sugar and tea Looking at a few videos of how it is made…. Grades!
Warm Up: Friday, December 7th In FULL Sentences….describe: What was the Middle Passage? What was the Triangle Trade? Who was Equiano? Will be collecting the warm ups today Start studying for the test Monday!
Learning Goals Analyze the importance of sugar, chocolate, and tea in the global economy Summarize the Columbian exchange and its effects
Background “since sugar can in no way establish itself as a central source of carbohydrates in the human diet… it requires export outlets if it is to flourish” “the use of sugar as a sweetener of newly popular beverages (coffee, cocoa, tea) became common…” “what set sugar apart was its character as an agro-industrial enterprise” 5
What Cacao Tastes Like… Among the products usually added to cacao beverages were spices like black pepper, vanilla, and chili pepper Because of its bitter flavor, it took time for the Spanish and other Europeans to develop a taste for chocolate. Tasting #1 But to make money off chocolate trading Europeans needed to add sugar and milk to counteract the natural bitterness
The Spread of Chocolate Eventually cacao was common in Europe… but the sugar needed to sell chocolate was essential. The British were responsible, in 1728 for the first clubs exclusively for fans of chocolate, and above all for the development of the chocolate bar The father of British chocolate is John Cadbury (1801-1889). In 1824, Cadbury opened his first coffee, tea and chocolate shop.
Tea Reaches Europe in the 1600s At first there was a high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell as the amount of tea grew. Initially it was available to the public in shops along with such rare and new spices as ginger and sugar As the craze for things from Asia swept Europe, tea became part of the way of life.
Tea Mania: Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland. Tea importation rose from 40,000 pounds in 1699 to an annual average of 240,000 pounds by 1708. Tea was drunk by all levels of society.
New meets Old With the discovery of the Americas and Spanish colonization, came a trade of items between the two civilizations. Many new items were introduced to the Americas as well as Europeans, Asians, and Africans. This global transfer of plants, animals, disease, and foods is known as “The Columbian Exchange.”
Items brought to the New World Grapes Olives Turnips Onions Citrus fruits Peaches Pears Bananas Sugar cane Rats earthworms Coffee bean Honey bee Wheat Rice Barley Oats Cattle Sheep Pig Horse Cat Camel
Items from Americas to Europeans, Asians, Africans, etc. (Old World) Squash Sweet potato Avocado Chili peppers Peanuts Potatoes Tomatoes Corn vanilla Beans Cacao beans Pineapple Pumpkin Turkey Tobacco Syphillis (debatable)
Some new foods terrified Europeans People thought the tomatoes were poisonous. People believed that potatoes caused leprosy. Even starving peasants were afraid to eat potatoes.
Corn and potatoes Had the highest effect in the Old World. Both crops are inexpensive to grow and highly nutritious. This improved the lives of many peasants and boosted the world’s population. The planting of the white potato in Ireland and the first sweet potato in China changed their countries’ histories.
"The growth of population...in Northern Europe could not have happened...without the increased nourishment provided by the potato.“ Potatoes thrive in a climate with short, wet winters, such as those of the northern European plains and are rich in calories and nutrients. Potatoes were easier to store (i.e. in the ground) than grains that had to be harvested and put in a barn. For many poor European peasants, the potato "became an insurance..." against ravaging soldiers and tax collectors.
Horses revolutionized lifestyles for Native Americans
Diseases brought to New World Smallpox Influenza Typhus Measles Malaria Diphtheria Whooping Cough
Diseases had drastic effects Native Americans had no immunity to European diseases. In 1616, a small pox epidemic ravaged the native population. The population went from 24,000 to only 750 members of the Massachusett tribe in 1631. An eyewitness said, “They died on heapes, as they lay in their houses.”
Decimation of Native population Sources vary, but it is estimated that 80%-95% of Native Americans were killed due to new diseases. 21 million natives died in Mexico alone Native population in Brazil went from 4 million to 300,000. Pre-Columbian America estimates over 30 million Native Americans decreased to 8 million by 1650. Over 100 million natives died between 1500- 1800.
"'Smallpox was the captain of the men of death..., typhus fever the first lieutenant, and measles the second lieutenant. More terrible than the conquistatores on horseback, more deadly than sword and gunpowder....'"
A Commercial Revolution New wealth in the Americas brought dramatic growth in overseas trade. This prompted a wave of new business and trading practices.
Rise of Capitalism Capitalism = economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for profit. Due to overseas trade, many merchants obtained great wealth. As a result, businesses across Europe grew and flourished.
Increased money supply The increased money supply caused prices to rise. Spain experienced crushing inflation in the 1600s due to boatloads of gold and silver from the Americas greatly increased the nation’s money supply.
Mercantilism The idea that a country’s power depended mainly on its wealth. As a result, the goal of every nation was to gain as much wealth as possible. Countries could get rich in two ways Acquiring gold and silver Establish a favorable balance of trade
Favorable balance of trade Means for countries to sell more goods than it buys. A nation’s goal under mercantilism was to become self-sufficient and not have to depend on other countries for goods. Colonies provided raw materials to home countries. Home countries sold the goods back to the colonists, sometimes at a higher price.