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Chapter 5 Community Policing, Problem Solving Policing and Service.

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1 Chapter 5 Community Policing, Problem Solving Policing and Service

2 Community Policing is one of the most significant trends in policing history. Community Policing is one of the most significant trends in policing history. Community Policing is an organization- wide philosophy and management approach that promotes community, government, and police partnerships. Community Policing is an organization- wide philosophy and management approach that promotes community, government, and police partnerships. Community Policing is when everyone assumes responsibility for the health of their community. Community Policing is when everyone assumes responsibility for the health of their community.

3 Community Policing is a belief that working together can accomplish what neither can do alone. Community Policing is a belief that working together can accomplish what neither can do alone. Community Policing is a philosophy that stresses working proactively in partnership with citizens to prevent and to solve crime-related problems. Community Policing is a philosophy that stresses working proactively in partnership with citizens to prevent and to solve crime-related problems. Recall Anglo-Saxon tithing system. Recall Anglo-Saxon tithing system.

4 Broken Windows: In unhealthy communities, disorder and crime may flourish. If it appears that no one cares, disorder and crime will thrive. Broken Windows: In unhealthy communities, disorder and crime may flourish. If it appears that no one cares, disorder and crime will thrive. Citizens involvement in the law enforcement community and in understanding policing has taken the form of civilian review boards, citizen patrols, citizen police academies, ride along and similar programs. Citizens involvement in the law enforcement community and in understanding policing has taken the form of civilian review boards, citizen patrols, citizen police academies, ride along and similar programs.

5 The two critical key elements of community policing are partnership and problem solving. The two critical key elements of community policing are partnership and problem solving. Partnerships: cornerstone of community policing. Partnerships: cornerstone of community policing. Exists on two levels: Exists on two levels: 1) Passive Level: Community assumes a compliant role and shows support for law and order by what they Don’t do. 1) Passive Level: Community assumes a compliant role and shows support for law and order by what they Don’t do. 2) Active Level: Community step beyond their law-abiding lives and get directly involved in projects, programs, and other specific efforts to enhance their community safety. 2) Active Level: Community step beyond their law-abiding lives and get directly involved in projects, programs, and other specific efforts to enhance their community safety.

6 The core components of effective community partnerships are: The core components of effective community partnerships are: Stakeholders with a vested interest in the collaboration Stakeholders with a vested interest in the collaboration Trusting vision and common goals for the collaboration. Trusting vision and common goals for the collaboration. Expertise Expertise Teamwork strategies Teamwork strategies Open communication Open communication Motivated partners Motivated partners Means to implement and sustain the collaborative effort Means to implement and sustain the collaborative effort An Action Plan An Action Plan

7 Medical Model: This is sometimes used to explain the relationship between the community and the police. Medical Model: This is sometimes used to explain the relationship between the community and the police. Patients are responsible for their own health, with physicians advising patients on how to be healthy. So, too, in the community citizens are responsible for public safety and keeping their neighborhoods healthy, and they cannot expect the police to take sole responsibility for it. Patients are responsible for their own health, with physicians advising patients on how to be healthy. So, too, in the community citizens are responsible for public safety and keeping their neighborhoods healthy, and they cannot expect the police to take sole responsibility for it. Police and the public share responsibility for the cause of crime, the fear of crime, and actual crime. Police and the public share responsibility for the cause of crime, the fear of crime, and actual crime.

8 This model focuses on prevention rather than cure, on being proactive rather than reactive. It is easier to prevent than to cure. This model focuses on prevention rather than cure, on being proactive rather than reactive. It is easier to prevent than to cure. Community Policing in Schools: Community Policing in Schools: Officer are assigned to school “community” Officer are assigned to school “community” Problem oriented Problem oriented Role of officer extended beyond law enforcement to include prevention and early prevention activities. Role of officer extended beyond law enforcement to include prevention and early prevention activities. Consistent responses to incidents. Consistent responses to incidents. Proactive Proactive

9 Partnership with Media: Partnership with Media: This relationship can be a powerful ally or formidable opponent. This relationship can be a powerful ally or formidable opponent. It is important to build a positive working partnership with media. It is important to build a positive working partnership with media. Community Policing, Partnerships and the Decrease of Crime: Community Policing, Partnerships and the Decrease of Crime: Many researchers report a direct correlation between the number of officers on the street and the decline of crime. Many researchers report a direct correlation between the number of officers on the street and the decline of crime.

10 However, the decrease of crime cannot be attributed to community policing alone. The following can also be attributed to the decrease of crime: However, the decrease of crime cannot be attributed to community policing alone. The following can also be attributed to the decrease of crime: Quality of life issues Quality of life issues Robust economy Robust economy Population with greater numbers of elderly Population with greater numbers of elderly Fewer juveniles Fewer juveniles

11 Problem oriented policing and community oriented policing are sometimes equated. Problem oriented policing and community oriented policing are sometimes equated. Problem oriented policing is an essential component of community policing. Problem oriented policing is an essential component of community policing. Problem oriented policing is a departmental wide strategy aimed at solving persistent community problems. Problem oriented policing is a departmental wide strategy aimed at solving persistent community problems. Goldstein is known as the father of problem oriented policing (POP) Goldstein is known as the father of problem oriented policing (POP)

12 Problem solving requires police to group incidents and thereby, identify underlying causes of problems in the community. Problem solving requires police to group incidents and thereby, identify underlying causes of problems in the community. Problem oriented policing, a vital component of the community policing philosophy, requires that police move beyond a law enforcement perspective in seeking solutions to problems. Problem oriented policing, a vital component of the community policing philosophy, requires that police move beyond a law enforcement perspective in seeking solutions to problems.

13 SARA Model: SARA Model: Eck and Spelman Eck and Spelman Four Strategies are: Four Strategies are: Scanning: grouping individual incidents into meaningful “problems” Scanning: grouping individual incidents into meaningful “problems” Analyzing: collecting information from all available sources Analyzing: collecting information from all available sources Responding: selecting and implementing solutions. Responding: selecting and implementing solutions. Assessing: evaluating the impact of the solution Assessing: evaluating the impact of the solution

14 The Crime Triangle: The Crime Triangle: Offender, victim and location. Offender, victim and location. If one of the three are removed, no crime. If one of the three are removed, no crime. Hot Spots: high crime areas Hot Spots: high crime areas Common Mistakes in Problem Solving: Common Mistakes in Problem Solving: Spending to much energy on unimportant details Spending to much energy on unimportant details Failing to resolve important issues Failing to resolve important issues Being secretive about true feeling Being secretive about true feeling Closed mind Closed mind Inability to decide or putting off decision to last minute Inability to decide or putting off decision to last minute Failing to set deadlines Failing to set deadlines Making decisions under pressure Making decisions under pressure Using unreliable sources of information Using unreliable sources of information

15 Implementing Community Policing: Implementing Community Policing: Community Policing will require a change in management style, mission statement and department organization. Community Policing will require a change in management style, mission statement and department organization. Leaders must have a vision for the department and the community Leaders must have a vision for the department and the community A key to community service is linking policing to the delivery of city services. A key to community service is linking policing to the delivery of city services. Community service translates into customer service Community service translates into customer service

16 Police department provide a wide variety of services including: Police department provide a wide variety of services including: Giving information (directions & advice) Giving information (directions & advice) Counseling Counseling Licensing and vehicle registering, Licensing and vehicle registering, Intervening in domestic arguments Intervening in domestic arguments Working with neglected/abused children Working with neglected/abused children Emergency medical or rescue services Emergency medical or rescue services Dealing with people under the influence of substances Dealing with people under the influence of substances Dealing with stray animals Dealing with stray animals Controlling crowds Controlling crowds Providing community education programs Providing community education programs

17 The most common and often most dangerous type of call made to the police department is setting disputes or quarrels (domestic violence) The most common and often most dangerous type of call made to the police department is setting disputes or quarrels (domestic violence) Police often have contact with the youth. The youth of our country are of critical importance. Programs for youth may include: Police often have contact with the youth. The youth of our country are of critical importance. Programs for youth may include: PAL: Police Athletic League, provide youth the opportunity to interact with police in sports. PAL: Police Athletic League, provide youth the opportunity to interact with police in sports. School Resource Officers: School Resource Officers: Operation CleanSweep: Retributive and Rehabilitative for help youth not commit crimes in future. Operation CleanSweep: Retributive and Rehabilitative for help youth not commit crimes in future.

18 McGruff: “Take a bite out of Crime.” McGruff: “Take a bite out of Crime.” Police Explorers: senior Scouts who volunteer with police departments Police Explorers: senior Scouts who volunteer with police departments Dare: Drug Resistance Education Dare: Drug Resistance Education Community Crime Prevention Programs: Community Crime Prevention Programs: Crime prevention programs include neighborhood or block watch programs, operation identification programs, home security, store security and auto security. Crime prevention programs include neighborhood or block watch programs, operation identification programs, home security, store security and auto security.

19 Challenges to Community Policing: Challenges to Community Policing: Resistance by police and the community Resistance by police and the community Perception that community policing goes against aggressive law enforcement practices. Perception that community policing goes against aggressive law enforcement practices. Benefits of Community Policing to Officers Benefits of Community Policing to Officers Job enrichment Job enrichment Get to know the citizens with whom they work Get to know the citizens with whom they work Have greater responsibility and authority Have greater responsibility and authority Serving and protecting a increasingly diverse population Serving and protecting a increasingly diverse population

20 Our population is becoming older and has more minorities, more immigrants, more homeless people and more individuals with infectious diseases. In addition, the gap between those who live in poverty and those who are more affluent is widening. Our population is becoming older and has more minorities, more immigrants, more homeless people and more individuals with infectious diseases. In addition, the gap between those who live in poverty and those who are more affluent is widening. Major challenges presented by immigrants are language barriers, unfamiliar customs, and failure to report victimization. Major challenges presented by immigrants are language barriers, unfamiliar customs, and failure to report victimization.

21 The challenge in dealing with homeless people is to balance compassion for them with the public’s right to be free from interference. The challenge in dealing with homeless people is to balance compassion for them with the public’s right to be free from interference.


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