Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Physical Features Section 2:Section 2:Climate Regions Visual Summary
Chapter Intro 1 Regions Europe’s landforms include high, snowcapped mountains and broad, fertile plains that are good for farming. Europe might be most influenced, however, by its nearness to water. A number of oceans and seas border Europe’s countries. Europe also has many important rivers. How do people use waterways?
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: Physical Features Geographic factors influence where people settle. Europe has a variety of landforms and plentiful natural resources that have attracted a large population. Most people live on Europe’s plains, where industry and agriculture flourish. Such successes, however, have contributed to environmental problems in the region.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 2: Climate Regions The physical environment affects how people live. Although Europe is located relatively far north, much of the region has a mild climate that is ideal for farming and development. However, many Europeans are concerned that the climate is warming, which may have dangerous consequences.
Section 1-Picture This Snowdrifts? No, these snowlike mounds were formed about 1,500 years ago during a volcanic eruption on the island of Lipari, off the coast of Sicily, in Italy. The mounds are made of pumice, a stone formed from the cooling of lava, which rained down on the island during the eruption. Today the volcano is quiet, but Lipari hums with the sounds of open-pit pumice mines. Pumice is used to polish smooth surfaces. The stone is often used to give “stonewashed” jeans their worn look. In Section 1, you will learn about the different European landforms and the effect they have had on people living in the region.
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Do you think the government should be responsible for controlling pollution? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 An 11-country campaign is underway to clean up the polluted Danube River, which flows through eastern and southeastern Europe. Ideas being considered in the cleanup are switching to organic farming, reducing agricultural and industrial runoff, treating home wastewater, and changing to environmentally friendly detergents and diapers.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways Europe’s landforms and waterways have greatly influenced where and how Europeans live.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Europe’s coastline is framed by the Atlantic Ocean and by several seas, including the Baltic, North, Mediterranean, and Black Seas. Most of the land in Europe lies within 300 miles (483 km) of a coast.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Only a few countries are landlocked, meaning they do not border an ocean or a sea, but people in those areas still have access to coastal ports because of relatively long rivers.landlocked
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Europe, a huge peninsula with many smaller peninsulas branching out from it, includes many islands, such as Great Britain, Ireland, and Iceland in the Atlantic Ocean, and Sicily, Crete, and Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) The large number of peninsulas and islands has affected Europe’s history. –Groups of people separated by the seas, rivers, and mountains developed different cultures. –Today Europe has more than 40 independent countries.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Europe’s major landform is the Northern European Plain, which stretches across the northern half of the mainland from Belarus and Ukraine westward to France and the British Isles.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) The rich soil of the Northern European Plain produces grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy cattle. The plain also has large deposits of coal, iron ore, and other minerals, which aid Europe’s industrial growth.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Other European lowlands include the Hungarian Plain and the Ukrainian Steppe, a broad, grassy plain north of the Black Sea. Highlands mark the northern border of the Northern European Plain, but steeper mountains lie south of the plain.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Europe’s highest mountain ranges form the Alpine Mountain System, which stretches from Spain to the Balkan Peninsula. –It includes the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Carpathians. –The region’s highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Alps of France.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Europe’s mountains have never completely blocked movement. Passes, or low areas between mountains, allow the movement of people and goods.Passes Three older highland areas are found in the northwest (from Sweden to Iceland), the Central Uplands (from southern Poland to France), and the Meseta in Spain.
Section 1 Landforms and Waterways (cont.) Many European rivers are navigable, or wide and deep enough for ships to use. The Danube and Rhine Rivers and the canals that link them are important for transporting goods. The fast-flowing rivers also generate electricity. Lakes, though relatively few in number, are important for recreation and tourism.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How has nearness to water shaped the lives and history of Europe’s people? A.Europeans have developed skills in sailing and fishing. B.It has allowed people to move easily between Europe and other continents. C.It has resulted in a sharing of cultures with Asia, Africa, and the Americas. D.All of the above
Section 1 Europe’s Resources Europe has valuable resources that strengthen its economy.
Section 1 Europe’s Resources (cont.) Almost half of the world’s coal comes from Europe, and mining is a major source of jobs in many countries. Petroleum and natural gas are found beneath the North Sea. In the highlands and mountains, swift- flowing rivers are used to create hydroelectric power.
Section 1 Europe’s Resources (cont.) Germany, Spain, and Denmark are leaders in building wind farms, which produce electricity from wind power.
Section 1 Europe’s Resources (cont.) Important natural resources in Europe include iron ore, manganese, clay, marble, granite, and stone. Fewer forests exist today due to clearing for farming, but Europe’s fertile soil provides rye, oats, wheat, and potatoes. Fish from the North Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea are another natural resource.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How do European governments discourage dependence on oil? A.They tax gasoline heavily. B.They encourage use of hydroelectric power. C.The encourage construction of wind farms. D.All of the above
Section 1 Environmental Issues Europe’s plentiful resources have helped its economy, but environmental problems are a growing concern.
Section 1 Environmental Issues (cont.) Europe has become an economic powerhouse, but the impact on the environment has sometimes been harmful. –Examples of the damage include erosion, air pollution, and water pollution.
Section 1 Environmental Issues (cont.) Erosion occurred when people cut forests to create farmland. –With no tree roots to hold it in place, the topsoil washed away in the rain.
Section 1 Environmental Issues (cont.) When air pollution from car exhaust and smoke from burning oil and coal mix with precipitation, acid rain falls to Earth. Acid rain has destroyed many forests and has harmed lakes, rivers, and historic buildings.
Section 1 Environmental Issues (cont.) By dumping sewage, garbage, and industrial waste into the waters, countries have polluted the Mediterranean Sea as well as rivers and lakes.
Section 1 Environmental Issues (cont.) Runoff from farms is another pollutant. –Runoff is precipitation that flows over the ground, often picking up pesticides and fertilizers along the way. –When these chemicals enter a river, they encourage the growth of algae, which affects the oxygen levels and eventually kills the fish.
A.A B.B Section 1 Europe’s successful economy has hurt its environment. A.True B.False
Section 2-Picture This These carefully balanced baskets will carry grapes that are handpicked in the Côte d’Or (“Golden Hill”) region of Burgundy, France. The region has been producing wine since A.D. 900, and the grape harvest is vital to the local economy. Because of this, and because grapes are highly sensitive to the climate, big changes in temperature are always cause for concern. Read this section to find out about climate conditions in Europe and the concern over the warming trend.
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you think that recycling is important and helpful to the world? A.Yes B.No
Section 2 Individuals can reduce global warming simply by adjusting a few habits. Turn off lights and electronic devices when they’re not being used, for example. Or find alternatives to car transportation. Fix dripping faucets. Buy energy-efficient light bulbs. Turn down the furnace and water heater at home. Recycle. Reuse. Every action helps, and no action is too small.
Section 2 Wind and Water Wind patterns and water currents shape Europe’s climate.
Section 2 Wind and Water (cont.) Much of Europe enjoys a mild climate. The North Atlantic Current carries warm waters from the Gulf of Mexico toward Europe. Winds from the west pass over this water and carry more warmth to Europe. These prevailing winds, known as westerlies, are a major influence on warming the European climate.
Section 2 Wind and Water (cont.) Warm winds from Africa contribute to the high temperatures in southern Europe. Winter winds from Asia lower temperatures in eastern Europe. Europe: Currents and Wind Patterns
Section 2 Does the water surrounding Europe affect the region’s climate? A.Yes B.No A.A B.B
Section 2 Climate Zones Europe has eight climate zones, each with different vegetation.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) The marine west coast climate of northwestern and central Europe has two features: mild temperatures and abundant precipitation. The mild temperatures allow for long growing seasons, even though farther north, the summer is shorter and cooler. Europe: Climate Zones
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) The precipitation typically falls in autumn and early winter, but the amount is affected by the rain shadow effect of the mountains. Europe: Climate Zones
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Forests thrive in much of Europe’s marine west coast climate zone. –Some forests consist of deciduous trees, which lose their leaves in the fall. –Coniferous trees, also called evergreens, grow in cooler areas of this zone. Europe: Natural Vegetation
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Eastern Europe and some areas of northern Europe have a humid continental climate. –This climate region has cooler summers and colder winters than the marine west coast zone. –Mixed forests of deciduous and coniferous trees are found throughout this zone.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) The Mediterranean zone, with hot, dry summers, includes much of southern Europe. Winters are mild and wet. The Pyrenees and Alps block chilly northern winds from reaching Spain and Italy, and some mountains create rain shadows.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) In southern France, the lack of a mountain barrier allows a cold, dry wind to blow in from the north. –This wind, called the mistral, brings gusts to the land in winter and spring.mistral
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Countries in the Mediterranean climate zone also are affected by hot, dry winds from Africa to the south. In Italy, these winds are called siroccos, and they bring uncomfortably humid conditions to southern Europe.siroccos
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Vegetation in the dry Mediterranean climate includes low-lying shrubs and grasses, olive trees, and grapevines.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Europe has two zones of extreme cold. –The subarctic zone covers parts of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. –The tundra zone is found in the northern reaches of these countries and in Iceland. –The tundra is an area of vast treeless plains near the North Pole.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) Because of Earth’s tilt, the sun shines on the far north for up to 20 hours a day in late spring and early summer. –In winter, nights also can last for 20 hours.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) The highland zone is found in the higher altitudes of the Alps and Carpathians where the climate is generally cool to cold. The steppe zone includes the southern part of Ukraine. Steppes are dry, treeless grasslands. The climate is not dry enough to be classified as desert but not wet enough for forests to flourish.
Section 2 Climate Zones (cont.) The humid subtropical zone is north of the Adriatic Sea and has hot, wet summers and mild, wet winters. Average temperatures on Earth have been inching upward for several decades. Today people are searching for the reasons, the consequences, and the solution, such as the Kyoto Treaty.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Where can a tundra zone be found? A.Norway B.Sweden C.Finland D.Iceland
VS 1 Landforms The Northern European Plain is a rich farming region and has a high population density. Mountains separate much of northern and southern Europe. Uplands regions are found in northwest and central Europe and in Spain.
VS 2 Waterways Waterways have had a major impact on Europe’s population and ways of life. Rivers provide transportation, good soil for farming, and hydroelectric power.
VS 3 European Resources Europe’s energy resources include coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydroelectric and wind power. In some areas, good soil promotes farming and dairy farming. Fishing is important to coastal Europe.
VS 4 Environmental Issues The European environment has been damaged by deforestation, pollution, and acid rain. Europeans are working to protect and improve their environment through recycling and limiting forms of chemical pollution.
VS 5 Climate Regions Europe’s nearness to water and its wind patterns greatly affect its climates. Europe has eight main climate zones: marine west coast, humid continental, Mediterranean, subarctic, tundra, highland, steppe, and humid subtropical. Europeans are concerned about the negative effects of global warming.
Vocab12 feature a part or detail that stands out
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