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PRE-HISTORY PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC SOCIETIES TO THE RISE OF CITIES.

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Presentation on theme: "PRE-HISTORY PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC SOCIETIES TO THE RISE OF CITIES."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRE-HISTORY PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC SOCIETIES TO THE RISE OF CITIES

2 EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIETY The Hominids –Australopithecus Appeared in east Africa about 4 million to 1 million years ago The term means "the southern ape" but it belongs to hominids Walked upright on two legs, well-developed hands Fashioned stone tools, probably knew how to use fire later Homo erectus Flourished 1.5 million to 200,000 years ago, east Africa The term means "upright walking human" Large brain, sophisticated tools, definitely knew how to control fire Developed language skills in well-coordinated hunts of large animals Migrations of Homo erectus –First migrated to north Africa –Between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago migrated to Asia and Europe

3 HOMO SAPIENS Homo sapiens –The term means "consciously thinking human" –Evolved as early as 250,000 years ago –Brain with large frontal regions for conscious and reflective thought –The advantages of intelligence over other species Migrations of Homo sapiens –Beginning more than 100,000 years ago, spread throughout Eurasia –Several ice ages between 120 and 25 thousand years ago –Land bridges enabled them to populate islands of Indonesia and New Guinea –Arrived in Australia at least 60,000 or perhaps as long as 120,000 years ago –Between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago, migrated to North America The natural environment –Homo sapiens used knives, spears, bows, and arrows –Brought tremendous pressure on other species

4 PALEOLITHIC AGE Homo sapiens –The term means "consciously thinking human" –Evolved as early as 250,000 years ago –Brain with large frontal regions for conscious and reflective thought –The advantages of intelligence over other species Migrations of Homo sapiens –Beginning more than 100,000 years ago, spread throughout Eurasia –Several ice ages between 120 and 25 thousand years ago –Land bridges enabled them to populate Indonesia and New Guinea –Arrived in Australia between 60,000 and 120,000 years ago –Between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago, migrated to North America The natural environment –Homo sapiens used knives, spears, bows, and arrows –Brought tremendous pressure on other species

5 PALEOLITHIC CULTURE Neandertal peoples –Named after the site of the Neander valley in S.W. Germany –Flourished in Europe and S.W. Asia between 100 and 35 thousand years ago –Careful, deliberate burials-evidence of a capacity for emotion and feelings Cro-Magnon peoples –The first human beings of fully modern type, appeared 40,000 years ago –Classified as Homo sapiens sapiens –A noticeable interest in fashion and artistic production Social Organization –Small family units, clans of generally no more than people –Organized hunting bands, led by elders with greatest knowledge of hunting, gathering –Women could be leaders Venus figurines –Besides jewelry and furniture, there were also Venus figurines and paintings –The figurines reflect a deep interest in fertility Cave paintings –Best known are Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain –Subjects: mostly animals; Purposes: aesthetic, "sympathetic magic

6 ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE Neolithic era –"New stone age" - refined tools and agriculture –Time period: from about 12,000 to 6,000 years ago –Most likely, Paleolithic women began systematic cultivation of plants –Paleolithic men began to domesticate animals –"Agricultural transition" is better than "agricultural revolution" Early agriculture –The earliest evidence found between 10,000 to 8000 B.C.E. –Slash-and-burn cultivation involved frequent movement of farmers –About 5000 B.C.E., agriculture well-established in Asia and Americas The spread of agriculture –Advantages of cultivation over hunting and gathering –Developed indigenously in several different cultural hearths –Agriculture provided a surplus

7 EARLY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY Population explosion caused by surplus Emergence of villages and towns –Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village (north of the Dead Sea) –Agricultural society, supplemented by hunting and limited trade –Mud huts and defensive walls Specialization of labor –Neolithic site of Çatal Hüyük (south-central Anatolia) Developed into a bustling town with more than 8,000 inhabitants Craft industries - pottery, metallurgy, and textile production –Ruling class, priestly, craftsmen, and merchants were common Social distinctions –Agriculture brought about private land ownership –Social classes emerged, as seen in Çatal Hüyük site Beliefs –Neolithic peoples celebrated deities associated with life cycle –Increasing deification, anthropomorphism of nature, seasons –Increasing masculinization of deities

8 ORIGINS OF URBAN LIFE Emergence of cities –Tended to emerge in hostile environments –Harsh environments required stronger organization –Cities were larger and more complex –Cities influenced life of large regions Earliest cities in Southern Mesopotamia Other hearths of urban civilization –Indus River Valley –Nile River Valley –River Valley of the Huang He –Coastal Jungles of Mexico


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