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Standard 1: Governance for Safety and Quality in Health Service Organisations Heather Wellington Accrediting Agencies Surveyor Workshop, 12 August, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Standard 1: Governance for Safety and Quality in Health Service Organisations Heather Wellington Accrediting Agencies Surveyor Workshop, 12 August, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Standard 1: Governance for Safety and Quality in Health Service Organisations Heather Wellington Accrediting Agencies Surveyor Workshop, 12 August, 2012

2 The context  The standard provides the safety and quality governance framework for health service organisations. It is expected that the Standard will apply to the implementation of all other Standards in conjunction with Standard 2, ‘Partnering with Consumers’  The standard is particularly important in the context of the changing governance arrangements in the public health care system

3 Definitions  Clinical governance A system through which organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care. This is achieved by creating an environment in which there is transparent responsibility and accountability for maintaining standards and by allowing excellence in clinical care to flourish

4 Why have a Standard about governance for safety and quality?  Evidence base: Considerable literature and expert opinion about the need for a ‘systems approach’ to governance The community expects that ‘someone’ is ensuring appropriate systems are in place and working well Evidence of safety and quality performance challenges in health care Multiple case studies of clinical governance failure Evidence that capability in good governance of safety and quality is still developing – reviews have confirmed variable performance

5 The Standard  Health service organisation leaders implement governance systems to set, monitor and improve the performance of the organisation and communicate the importance of the patient experience and quality management to all members of the workforce  Clinicians and other members of the workforce use the governance systems

6 Five criteria 1. Governance and quality improvement systems There are integrated systems of governance to actively manage patient safety and quality risks 2. Clinical practice Care provided by the clinical workforce is guided by the best current practice 3. Performance and skills management Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach to provide safe, high quality health care 4. Incident and complaints management Patient safety and quality incidents are recognised, reported and analysed, and this information is used to improve safety systems 5. Patient rights and engagement Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported

7 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.1: Implementing a governance system that sets out the policies, procedures and/or protocols for: establishing and maintaining a clinical governance framework identifying safety and quality risks collecting and reviewing performance data implementing prevention strategies based on data analysis analysing reported incidents implementing performance management procedures ensuring compliance with legislative requirements and relevant industry standards communicating with and informing the clinical and non-clinical workforce undertaking regular clinical audits

8 1. Governance and quality improvement systems  Why? Evidence suggests a significant correlation between the governance system of a health organisation and the level of performance achieved within that organisation Michel S. Putting quality first in the boardroom. The King’s Fund Available at: Effective clinical governance involves setting direction, making policy and strategy decisions, overseeing and monitoring organisational performance and ensuring overall accountability for a service

9 1. Governance and quality improvement systems  What? Establish an organisation-wide management system for the development, implementation and regular review of policies, procedures and/or protocols(1.1.1) Consider the impact on patient safety and quality of care in business decision making(1.1.2)

10 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.2: The board, chief executive officer and/or other higher level of governance within a health service organisation taking responsibility for patient safety and quality of care  Why? Both leadership and performance monitoring are essential elements of good clinical governance The board and senior managers are responsible for setting a positive organisational culture of safety and quality and ensuring appropriate systems are in place  What? The executive level of governance monitors reports on safety and quality indicators and other safety and quality performance data (1.2.1) Action is taken to improve the safety and quality of care (1.2.2)

11 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.3: Assigning workforce roles, responsibilities and accountabilities to individuals for: patient safety and quality in their delivery of health care the management of safety and quality specified in each of these Standards

12 1. Governance and quality improvement systems  Why? Systems for delegating and exercising authority, accountability and responsibility are essential elements of good clinical governance. Authority refers to the scope given to staff at each level of the organisation to carry out their responsibilities, the individual’s authority to act, the resources available and the boundaries of their role. Accountability requires clear definition of the responsibilities of individuals, functions and committees for safe, high quality services. Effective governance also requires personal responsibility, where staff accept personal ownership of their actions and their role in the safety and quality of services provided by their organisation

13 1. Governance and quality improvement systems  What? Effective delegation of safety and quality roles and responsibilities (1.3.1) Support for individuals with delegated roles and responsibilities to perform, in particular to meet the requirements of the Standards (1.3.2) Ensuring agency or locum workers are aware of their designated roles and responsibilities (1.3.3)

14 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.4: Implementing training in the assigned safety and quality roles and responsibilities  Why? Health care workers who are educated and trained to work together can reduce risks to patients, themselves and their colleagues and when they manage incidents proactively and maximise opportunities to learn from adverse events and near misses. Organisations also have a responsibility to provide the appropriate systems and support to enable their workforce to learn and apply the skills and knowledge required for patient safety. In the past most training and education in health care has been delivered using the learning objectives of a particular profession, occupation or discipline. This segregated approach is not appropriate in today’s health care system where complexity, technology and specialisation are the norm National Patient Safety Education Framework 2005

15 1. Governance and quality improvement systems  What? Providing the workforce with the skill and information needed to fulfil their safety and quality roles and responsibilities (1.4.1) Providing annual mandatory training programs to meet the requirements of the Standards (1.4.2) Providing locum and agency workforce with the necessary information, training and orientation to the workplace to fulfil their safety and quality roles and responsibilities (1.4.3) Providing competency-based training to the clinical workforce to improve safety and quality (1.4.4)

16 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.5: Establishing an organisation-wide risk management system that incorporates identification, assessment, rating, controls and monitoring for patient safety and quality  Why? Risk management is an essential component of clinical governance as provision of care carries an element of risk to patients, providers and the organisation within which care is delivered  What? Establishment and monitoring/maintaining of an organisation-wide risk register (1.5.1) Taking actions to minimise risks to patient safety and quality of care (1.5.2)

17 1. Governance and quality improvement systems 1.6: Establishing an organisation-wide quality management system that monitors and reports on the safety and quality of patient care and informs changes in practice  Why? A planned, systematic approach to defining quality, monitoring quality, designing and implementing quality initiatives and evaluating outcomes is necessary when there are complex, inter-dependent systems  What? Establishment and monitoring/maintaining of an organisation-wide quality management system (1.6.1) Taking actions to maximise patient safety and quality of care (1.6.2)

18 2. Care provided by the clinical workforce is guided by current best practice 1.7 Developing and/or applying clinical guidelines or pathways that are supported by the best available evidenceand implementing mechanisms to escalate care and call for emergency assistance where there are concerns that a patient’s condition is deteriorating  Why? Research has shown that clinical practice guidelines can be effective in bringing about change and improving health outcomes.  What? Making agreed and documented clinical guidelines and/or pathways available to the clinical workforce (1.7.1) Monitoring the use of agreed clinical guidelines by the clinical workforce (1.7.2)

19 2. Care provided by the clinical workforce is guided by current best practice 1.8 Adopting processes to support the early identification, early intervention and appropriate management of patients at increased risk of harm  Why? Evidence shows that warning signs preceding adverse events in hospital settings are not always recognised or acted upon  What? Establish mechanisms to identify patients at increased risk of harm (1.8.1) Take early action to reduce the risks for at-risk patients (1.8.2) Establish systems to escalate the level of care when there is an unexpected deterioration in health status (1.8.3)

20 2. Care provided by the clinical workforce is guided by current best practice 1.9 Using an integrated patient clinical record that identifies all aspects of the patient’s care  Why? The patient clinical record acts as both a tool for critical communication and a historical record of care, for quality and medico-legal purposes  What? Ensure accurate, integrated and readily accessible patient clinical records are available to the clinical workforce at the point of care (1.9.1) Ensure the design of the patient clinical record allows for systematic audit of the contents against the requirements of the Standards (1.9.2)

21 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach 1.10 Implementing a system that determines and regularly reviews the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and scope of practice for the clinical workforce  Why? There have been multiple reported occasions when clinicians have worked outside their or their organisation’s level of competence, resulting in significant patient harm Health ministers have endorsed a national standard for credentialling and scope of practice for senior medical practitioners Responsibility for ensuring clinicians work within an appropriate scope of clinical practice rests at various levels in the system, including with the governing body. Ultimately, this is an organisational governance responsibility

22 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach  What? Ensure a system is in place to define and regularly review the scope of practice for the clinical workforce (1.10.1) Ensure mechanisms are in place to monitor that the clinical workforce are working within their agreed scope of practice (1.10.2) Ensure organisational clinical service capability, planning and scope of practice is directly linked to the clinical service roles of the organisation (1.10.3) Ensure the system for defining the scope of practice is used whenever a new clinical service, procedure or other technology is introduced (1.10.4) Ensure supervision of the clinical workforce is provided whenever it is necessary for individuals to fulfil their designated role (1.10.5)

23 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach 1.11 Implementing a performance development system for the clinical workforce that supports performance improvement within their scope of practice  Why? There is strong evidence that implementation of well- designed performance management systems can enhance the achievement of individual and organisational goals  What? Implement a valid and reliable performance review process for the clinical workforce(1.11.1) Ensure the clinical workforce participates in regular performance reviews that support individual development and improvement (1.11.2)

24 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach 1.12 Ensuring that systems are in place for ongoing safety and quality education and training  Why? Health care workers who are educated and trained to work together can reduce risks to patients, themselves and their colleagues and when they manage incidents proactively and maximise opportunities to learn from adverse events and near misses Organisations also have a responsibility to provide the appropriate systems and support to enable their workforce to learn and apply the skills and knowledge required for patient safety

25 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach  What? Offer the clinical and relevant non-clinical workforce access to ongoing safety and quality education and training for identified professional and personal development (1.12.1)

26 3. Managers and the clinical workforce have the right qualifications, skills and approach 1.13 Seeking regular feedback from the workforce to assess their level of engagement with, and understanding of the safety and quality system of the organisation  Why? The effectiveness of education and training systems needs to be monitored  What? Analyse feedback from the workforce on their understanding and use of safety and quality systems (1.13.1) Take action to increase workforce understanding and use of safety and quality system(1.13.2)

27 4. Patient safety and quality incidents are recognised, reported and analysed and information is used to improve safety 1.14 Implementing an incident management and investigation system that includes reporting, investigating and analysing incidents (including near misses), which all result in corrective actions  Why? Research has shown that adverse patient events can be detected, and their frequency reduced, using multiple detection methods and clinical improvement strategies as part of an integrated clinical risk management program

28 4. Patient safety and quality incidents are recognised, reported and analysed and information is used to improve safety  What? Establish processes are to support the workforce recognition and reporting of incidents and near misses (1.14.1) Establish systems to analyse and report on incidents (1.14.2) Provide feedback on the analysis of reported incidents to the workforce (1.14.3) Take action to reduce risks to patients identified through the incident management system (1.14.4) Review incidents and analysis of incidents at the highest level of governance in the organisation (1.14.5)

29 4. Patient safety and quality incidents are recognised, reported and analysed and information is used to improve safety 1.15 Implementing a complaints management system that includes partnership with patients and carers  Why? Complaints are an important improvement opportunity Consumers have a right to be engaged Consumers can contribute to finding system solutions  What? Processes are in place to support the workforce to recognise and report complaints (1.15.1) Systems are in place to analyse and implement improvements in response to complaints (1.15.2) Feedback is provided to the workforce on the analysis of reported complaints (1.15.3) Patient feedback and complaints are reviewed at the highest level of governance in the organisation (1.15.4)

30 4. Patient safety and quality incidents are recognised, reported and analysed and information is used to improve safety 1.16 Implementing an open disclosure process based on the national open disclosure standard  Why? Consumers expect honest disclosure and discussion when things go wrong Open disclosure is an element of an integrated positive safety and quality culture Health ministers have endorsed the national open disclosure standard  What? Implement an open disclosure program, consistent with the national open disclosure standard (1.16.1) Train the clinical workforce in open disclosure processes (1.16.2)

31 5. Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported 1.17 Implementing through organisational policies and practices a patient charter of rights that is consistent with the current national charter of healthcare rights  Why? Stating consumer rights, even in a non-enforceable statement, provides a basis for those rights to be implemented There is broad recognition of the need for the health care system to be ‘consumer focused’ but there is significant evidence that this is not yet achieved A charter of healthcare rights provides a basis for implementing strategies to support those rights Patients and carers can be assisted and encouraged to engage in healthcare safety and quality if they understand their rights

32 5. Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported  What? Adopt a charter of patient rights that is consistent with the current national charter of healthcare rights(1.17.1) Provide and explain information on patient rights to patients and carers (1.17.2) Establish systems to support patients who are at risk of not understanding their healthcare rights (1.17.3)

33 5. Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported 1.18 Implementing processes to enable partnership with patients in decisions about their care, including informed consent to treatment  Why? Patients have a legal right to consent, or refuse consent Informed patients can contribute to better decision-making  What? Engage patients and carers as partners in the planning for their treatment (1.18.1) Establish mechanisms to monitor and improve documentation of informed consent (1.18.2) Establish mechanisms to align the information provided to patients with their capacity to understand (1.18.3) Support patients and carers to document clear advance care directives and/or treatment-limiting orders (1.18.4)

34 5. Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported  1.19 Implementing procedures that protect the confidentiality of patient clinical records without compromising appropriate clinical workforce access to patient clinical information  Why? Patients have a legal right to privacy and confidentiality Clinicians need access to relevant information to plan and deliver quality care  What? Ensure patient clinical records are available at the point of care (1.19.1) Establish systems to restrict inappropriate access to and dissemination of patient clinical information (1.19.2)

35 5. Patient rights are respected and their engagement in their care is supported  1.20 Implementing well designed, valid and reliable patient experience feedback mechanisms and using these to evaluate the health service performance  Why? Patient feedback is a rich source of information about safety and quality of care and improvement opportunities Systematic collection provides different data from ad hoc complaints and compliments  What? Use data collected from patient feedback systems to measure and improve health services in the organisation(1.20.2)

36 General issues Governance is the responsibility of the governing entity, but governance systems permeate the organisation. There should be an identifiable system throughout the organisation of: Strong cultural leadership Delegation and clarity of roles and responsibilities Quality management Performance monitoring and reporting, through to the governing entity Risk management

37 General issues  The key to effective governance is ensuring: There is a positive organisational culture that values performance and promotes continuous inquiry Systems of care are well-designed and performance is monitored A system is made up of inputs (e.g. equipment, pharmaceuticals, skilled staff) and processes (policies, procedures, the way things are done) Systems need to be actively designed, monitored, controlled and regularly reviewed There are systems to ensure people with the necessary skills and competencies are appointed and supported at all levels of the organisation The right facilities and supports are available Risk is identified and managed

38 General issues  The governing entity is responsible for the ‘tone at the top’. Strong clinical governance requires explicit leadership of safety and quality  In a well-governed organisation, people will thrive on the question “how do we know?” (not see it as reflecting lack of trust)

39 General issues  Governance is different from management good management includes management of safety and quality good governance adds to good management by importing a layer of leadership, accountability and risk management  Good governance requires constant inquiry: Have we got a system? Is it a good system?  Good governance requires a focus on evidence, not just ‘trust’ How do we know? Are there standards that apply? Do we comply?

40 General issues  Its not just about compliance and assurance - good governance requires the governing entity to support and coach the CEO and senior staff  Good clinical governance draws from experience in other sectors and industries – the principles of delegation, responsibility, quality management, accountability and risk management are the same

41 General issues  The complexity of clinical governance systems will vary depending on the size and complexity of the health service  To govern well, a level of independence from management is appropriate, to allow genuine, arms-length, constructive inquiry

42 General issues  The structure of most criteria requires: Documentation of the elements of the governance system Clearly specified roles and responsibilities Policies Delegations Contractual specifications Methods of monitoring and feedback Evidence of continuous and systematic testing of the governance system – “how do we know?” Evidence of monitoring of effectiveness Evidence of governance responses

43 Specific issues  A system for the development and maintenance of policy that controls safety and quality of care (1.1): This is the foundation of the organisation’s clinical governance system Led and authorised by the governing entity Well-designed, systematic and controlled Clear about who is authorised to make and update policies Inclusive - core policies relating e.g. to performance monitoring and reporting, risk management, adverse event management, open disclosure, credentialling and scope of practice, statutory immunity, expectations of clinician engagement in peer review and audit, engagement of consumers Supported by and consistent with position descriptions and performance management systems Clear individual responsibilities and accountabilities for the system Supported by effective governance committees

44 Specific issues  Inclusion of safety and quality in all decision-making and planning (1.1.2): Objectively meaningful, documented inclusion of safety and quality considerations in strategic, business, operational and clinical plans Comprehensive, documented analysis of clinical implications of major decisions Does documentation about major decisions reflect an appropriate focus on clinical safety and quality?

45 Specific issues  Monitoring of safety and quality performance (1.2.1) Dashboards of data are necessary but not sufficient Indicators Metrics Adverse events (high level data) Risk rating information Compliance with guidelines/pathways Participation in well-designed peer review The governing entity needs to allocate sufficient time for all directors (if appointed) to fulfil their independent responsibilities – should be identifiable from minutes of meetings Governance actions should regularly and reliably include clinical governance actions  Needs to be complemented by regular consideration of the design and effectiveness of the quality management system (1.6)

46 Specific issues  Workforce (1.3, 1.4 and 1.10) A skilled, motivated and developed workforce is critical to safe, high quality care Requires A focus on organisational management structure (are roles and responsibilities clear?) A focus on responsibilities (do contracts and position descriptions clearly identify safety and quality responsibilities including supervision responsibilities?) Effective credentialling and scope of clinical practice (consistent with standard, administratively reliable credentialling, robust peer-based scope of practice) Demonstrable investment in well-designed performance review, education, training and development (including in safety and quality and systems theory) Reliable, documented and evaluated systems to induct /orient and support the workforce (especially the locum/temporary workforce)

47 Specific issues  Risk management (1.5, linked to 1.14, 1.15 and 1.16) This is a core governance responsibility The governance question is at a systems level – have we got an effective system in place, how do we know? Should be moving towards evidence of proactive consideration of design of systems for delivery of care that limit risk, as well as retrospective review of incidents, complaints etc. Requires evidence of a risk register, a culture of risk awareness and a systems focus for identifying and managing risk Links complaints, incidents, open dislosure

48 Specific issues  Quality management (1.6, 1.7 and 1.8) Again, the governance question is at a systems level – have we got an effective system in place to deliver clinical care to a high level of quality? How do we know? Moving towards proactive consideration of design of systems for delivery of care for effectiveness and appropriateness as well as safety Supported by an agreed language about the elements of quality of care Planned schedule of reviews and audits with a systems focus (design and performance) Reliable follow up of findings and recommendations Systematically reported to the governing entity Supported by process and outcome data

49 Specific issues  Patient clinical record (1.9) Requires a reliable system (policies and procedures) for recording, communicating, using and securely storing patient-level clinical information Evidence of monitoring of compliance and system performance

50 Specific issues  Incident and complaints management and open disclosure (1.14, 15 and 16) Requires comprehensive documented policies and procedures that reflect readily-available standards for incident and complaints management and open disclosure There are significant compliance obligations in most jurisdictions Evidence of evaluation of systems outcomes will support appropriate ongoing governance controls

51 Specific issues  Patient rights and engagement (1.17, 1.18, 1.19 and 1.20, linked to 1.15) Founded in organisational culture A significant compliance element (confidentiality and privacy) Reflected in multiple systems and structures Clearly reflected in policy May be documented in a system including clearly defined roles and responsibilities, processes and outcomes Documented evidence of systematic collation and analysis of patient feedback (both survey and ad hoc) and review of committee structures will provide valuable insights into level of systematic engagement

52 Summary  Governance is the activity of leadership, delegation, oversight of quality management, monitoring, reporting and risk management  It is the responsibility of the governing entity to ensure an effective governance system is in place, permeating the organisation  Managers are responsible for designing good systems of care and ensuring quality care is delivered – good governance creates another ‘arms-length’ layer of leadership and assurance  At a governance level, the questions are always “Do we have a good system?” and “How do we know?”  The standard guides the governing entity to address the various elements of leadership, assurance, accountability and risk management


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