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] Monday, 9/24 – Lecture 5: Lincoln’s War Political Manifestation of Sectional Tension on the National Level Why a Republ. Victory in 1860? Pol. Backgrnd.–

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Presentation on theme: "] Monday, 9/24 – Lecture 5: Lincoln’s War Political Manifestation of Sectional Tension on the National Level Why a Republ. Victory in 1860? Pol. Backgrnd.–"— Presentation transcript:

1 ] Monday, 9/24 – Lecture 5: Lincoln’s War Political Manifestation of Sectional Tension on the National Level Why a Republ. Victory in 1860? Pol. Backgrnd.– rise of new parties/end 2 nd party syst. Trouble for the Democrats in the 1850s Stephen Douglas’s complicated road to a presidential nomination Kansas-Nebraska 1856 Freeport Doctrine [Freeport, IL] – 1858 – Illinois Senate Campaign Envisioning Extremists at the Gate John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA [1859] 1860 election campaign – FOUR candidates, dividing established pools of voters Response to Lincoln’s election – The Process of Secession Secession – was it legal? Where did it flourish? Legitimizing it: Creation of the Confederacy (Feb 1861) – Montgomery, AL The View from the Union from the Lincoln Administration – “Masterly Inactivity” from Congress – Attempts at Compromise [first] 13 th Amendment / Crittenden Compromise The Sumter Crisis: Lincoln’s Inauguration [3/4/61]  Attack on the Fort [4/12/61] Provisioning the Charleston Fort – options – “Star of the West” January ‘61 April 1861 – who is the aggressor? Importance of Sumter -- For South / For North / The Middle?

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6 Stephen Douglas IL Senator – Head of Senate Committee on Territories Popular Sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act “If we will only act conscientiously and rigidly upon this great principle of popular sovereignty, which guarantees to each State and Territory the right to do as it pleases on all things, local and domestic, instead of Congress interfering, we will continue at peace one with another... Under that principle we have become, from a feeble nation, the most powerful on the face of the earth, and if we only adhere to that principle, we can go forward increasing in territory, in power, in strength and in glory until the Republic of America shall be the North Star that shall guide the friends of freedom throughout the civilized world.”– Senator Stephen Douglas,1858

7 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Senatorial Election Freeport Doctrine – “slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless supported by local police regulations” Interpretation: Slavery as unnatural institution, needing unnatural protection

8 ] Monday, 9/24 – Lecture 5: Lincoln’s War Political Manifestation of Sectional Tension on the National Level Why a Republ. Victory in 1860? Pol. Backgrnd.– rise of new parties/end 2 nd party syst. Trouble for the Democrats in the 1850s Stephen Douglas’s complicated road to a presidential nomination Kansas-Nebraska 1856 Freeport Doctrine [Freeport, IL] – 1858 – Illinois Senate Campaign Envisioning Extremists at the Gate John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA [1859] 1860 election campaign – FOUR candidates, dividing established pools of voters Response to Lincoln’s election – The Process of Secession Secession – was it legal? Where did it flourish? Legitimizing it: Creation of the Confederacy (Feb 1861) – Montgomery, AL The View from the Union from the Lincoln Administration – “Masterly Inactivity” from Congress – Attempts at Compromise [first] 13 th Amendment / Crittenden Compromise The Sumter Crisis: Lincoln’s Inauguration [3/4/61]  Attack on the Fort [4/12/61] Provisioning the Charleston Fort – options – “Star of the West” January ‘61 April 1861 – who is the aggressor? Importance of Sumter -- For South / For North / The Middle?

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14 ] Monday, 9/24 – Lecture 5: Lincoln’s War Political Manifestation of Sectional Tension on the National Level Why a Republ. Victory in 1860? Pol. Backgrnd.– rise of new parties/end 2 nd party syst. Trouble for the Democrats in the 1850s Stephen Douglas’s complicated road to a presidential nomination Kansas-Nebraska 1856 Freeport Doctrine [Freeport, IL] – 1858 – Illinois Senate Campaign Envisioning Extremists at the Gate John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA [1859] 1860 election campaign – FOUR candidates, dividing established pools of voters Response to Lincoln’s election – The Process of Secession Secession – was it legal? Where did it flourish? Legitimizing it: Creation of the Confederacy (Feb 1861) – Montgomery, AL The View from the Union from the Lincoln Administration – “Masterly Inactivity” from Congress – Attempts at Compromise [first] 13 th Amendment / Crittenden Compromise The Sumter Crisis: Lincoln’s Inauguration [3/4/61]  Attack on the Fort [4/12/61] Provisioning the Charleston Fort – options – “Star of the West” January ‘61 April 1861 – who is the aggressor? Importance of Sumter -- For South / For North / The Middle?

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17 THE STEAMSHIP "STAR OF THE WEST.“ From Harper’s Weekly, January 19, 1861 Lame Duck President James Buchanan does nothing. President Elect can do nothing.

18 Jefferson Davis & Alexander Stephens Confederate Leaders 1861

19 Lincoln on his way to Washington. March 1861

20 Proposed 13 th Amendment [1860/61]: No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State. 13 th Amendment [1865]: Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

21 Crittenden Compromise in the Senate [John Crittenden of Ky] “ A joint resolution (S. No. 50) proposing certain amendments to the Constitution of the United States.” from the Congressional Globe, December 18, “ Whereas serious and alarming dissensions have arisen between the northern and southern states, concerning the rights and security of the rights of the slaveholding States, and especially their rights in the common territory of the United States; and whereas it is eminently desirable and proper that these dissensions, which now threaten the very existence of this Union, should be permanently quieted and settled by constitutional provisions, which shall do equal justice to all sections, and thereby restore to all the people that peace and good-will which ought to prevail between all the citizens of the United States: Therefore, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, (two thirds of both Houses concurring,) That the following articles be, and are hereby, proposed and submitted as amendments to the Constitution of the United States,...” Congress shall: prohibit slavery in national territory north of allow its establishment and protection by federal government SOUTH of that line. Allow future states, N OR S of 36-30, to enter the Union w/ or w/out slavery as they chose. Prevent Congress from abolishing slavery in places under national jurisdiction surrounded by slave states. Compensate owners in communities where intimidation prevented federal officials from arresting fugitive slaves Enforce the fugitive slave law Nullify personal liberty laws in the North

22 Fort Sumter – attacked 4/12/61 -- surrendered 4/14/61


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