Presentation on theme: "POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP)"— Presentation transcript:
1POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP) Ronald S. Kaiser, Ph.D., ABPPLicensed PsychologistClinical Associate Professor, Department of Neurology,Thomas Jefferson UniversityJefferson Headache Center
2POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED Positive psychology is that branch of psychology that involves the study and promotion of well-being.The gold standard for measuring well-being is flourishing.The goal of positive psychology is the increase of flourishing.Seligman, 2011
3POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED (2) Psychology is not just the study of pathology, weakness, and damage. It is also the study of strength and virtue.Treatment is not just fixing what is broken. It is nurturing what is best.Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2000)Positive Psychology can be incorporated into other approaches to treatment.
5PSYCHOTHERAPY COMES FROM A DISEASE REDUCTION MODEL Historical definition of health = Absence of disease.Psychoanalytic goal of tension-reduction.CBT focuses on irrational beliefs, automatic negative thoughts, etc.DSM gold standard is “No Diagnosis”.Reportable scales on the MMPI are the elevated ones.NIMH funding is granted for disease research.
6WHO DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH HAVE CHANGED Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.Mental Health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.
7PSYCHOLGY’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO LEARNING HAVE IMPACTED ON SchoolsParentingSportsIndustryBut not necessarily on the conduct of psychotherapyFor many of us it was too mechanistic without enough focus upon disease.
8PSYCHOLOGY AND INDUSTRY Often co-opted by other disciplinesEffectiveness trumps credentialsLaid the groundwork for the coaching professionAre you familiar with?Seth GodinBrian TraceyJim RohmStephen HoveyNapoleon HillTony RobbinsHill was advisor to 2 presidents; Robbins spoke at Harvard
9MORE MOTIVATING THAN MONEY (AFTER A CERTAIN POINT) AutonomyMasteryPurpose
10LET’S START WITH A BIT OF SELF-DISCLOSURE The influence of Jim MurrayThe influence of Don MeredithThe influence of Dr. Benjamin ShimbergThe influence of the gymThe role of contextThe arrival of positive psychologyThe internet
11SOME NEW DEVELOPMENTS THAT AFFECT THEORY BUILDING Brain PlasticityMindfulnessThe role of physical exerciseThe role of mental exerciseHealth PsychologyBiofeedback/NeurofeedbackThe early work in positive psychologyThe internet
12THE SPECIAL ROLE OF BRAIN PLASTICITY The historical belief was that after childhood the brain could only change in one direction – Decline.Hardwiring: the concept that the brain was more like a computer than a muscle.Research has dramatically changed this thinking
13RESEARCH ON THE CHANGING BRAIN Taub’s Constraint Induced (CI) Movement Therapy.Competitive plasticity and Merzenich’s brain mapping.The role of mental rehearsal (Pascal-Leone’s piano students; Sharansky’s imprisonment).Maguire’s research on the posterior hippocampuses of London taxi drivers (Maguire, Current Biology, 2011).Mirror neurons (Iacoboni, 2009)
14THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE What did Freud, Rogers, Skinner, Ellis, etc. have to say about exercise?What have Seligman, Achor, and other positive psychologists said about exercise?MacArthur Foundation studies demonstrate 3 ways of reducing cognitive decline (normal weight, lifelong learning, exercise)Studies demonstrate that if you are middle-age and sedentary and you start a regular exercise program, you can delay the onset of cognitive decline by years (Ratey; Kramer).Naperville, IL, 8th graders finished #1 in the world in science & 6th in math after being involved in a comprehensive daily PE program.
16POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY EMERGES IN AN AGE OF SCIENCE Commitment to researchCriticisms of humanistic psychology for insufficient research base.Unlike Freud, Rogers, Ellis, Positive Psychology was largely developed by academics rather than clinicians
17THE SEMINAL ARTICLESeligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5-14.
18PIONEERS OF THE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY MOVEMENT Ed Diener (“Dr Happiness; Subjective well-being)George Vaillant (longitudinal study of successful aging)MIHALYI CSIKSZENTMIHALYIMARTIN SELIGMANBarbara Fredrickson (Broaden and Build; Positivity Ratio)Christopher Peterson* (Values in Action project)
19THE NEXT GENERATION OF LEADERS IN POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Sonja Lyubomirsky (Happiness)Todd Kashian (Curiosity)Karen Reivich (Resilience)Angela Duckworth (Grit)Robert Vallarand (Passion)Tal Ben-Shahar (General student body teaching)Shawn Achor (Consulting)
20THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF CAROL DWECK Mindset: The view that you adopt for yourself.Fixed Mindset: The belief that your qualities are unchangeable – and you have to keep proving yourself over and over.Related to being praised for your attributes.Growth Mindset: The belief that your basic qualities can be changed by your efforts.Related to being praised for your efforts.Substantial research supports the benefits of the growth mindset.
21CSIKSZENTMIHALYAs World War II approached in Europe, he observed how some adults became helpless as social supports decayed while others maintained their integrity.His work in the U.S. led to his development of the concept of Flow and its role in the development of Positive Psychology.
22FLOW The optimal experience. It does not “just happen” passively, but you can’t force yourself into flow.It involves being fully focused, motivated, energized, and involved in an activity.You can’t be depressed or anxious and able to be in a state of flow.Contrary to popular belief, life’s best moments are when we are stretched to physical and/or mental limits rather than relaxed.Our best moments may not necessarily be pleasant at the time.Experiences that result in flow for us are not universal.
23THE CONDITIONS OF FLOW Goals are clear Feedback is immediate There is a balance between opportunity and capacityConcentration is deepThe sense of time is altered
24TRAITS OF THE AUTOTELIC PERSONALITY CuriosityPersistenceLow self-centerednessOriented toward performing activities for intrinsic reasons only.
25SELIGMANHis journey went from Learned Helplessness to Learned Optimism to Authentic Happiness to Flourish - and the psychology of well-being.Developed the MAPP program at Penn.Instrumental in developing major positive psychology concepts – including Signature Strengths and PERMA.Collaborated with Chris Peterson in researching and writing Character Strengths and Virtues.
27CHARACTER STRENGTHS AND VIRTUES Positive Psychology’s answer to the DSM and ICD – “A Manual for the Sanities”.The focus is on what is right about people rather than what is wrong.Based on substantial research across cultures.6 Virtues encompass 24 Character Strengths.
28STRENGTHS OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE Creativity (Originality, Ingenuity)Curiosity (Interest, Novelty-seeking, Openness to Experience)Open-mindedness (Judgment, Critical Thinking)Love of LearningPerspective (Wisdom)
29STRENGTHS OF HUMANITY Love Kindness (Generosity, Nurturance, Care Compassion, Altruistic Love, “Niceness)Social Intelligence (Emotional Intelligence, Personal Intelligence)
30STRENGTHS OF JUSTICECitizenship (Social Responsibility, Loyalty, Teamwork)FairnessLeadership
31STRENGTHS OF TEMPERANCE Forgiveness and MercyHumility and ModestyPrudenceSelf-Regulation (Self-Control)
32STRENGTHS OF TRANSCENDENCE Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence (Awe, Wonder, Elevation)GratitudeHope (Optimism, Future-Mindedness, Future Orientation)Humor (Playfulness)Spirituality (Religiousness, Faith, Purpose)
34ASSESSING SIGNATURE STRENGTHS Go toVIA Survey of Character strengths (240 items)Brief Strengths Test (24 items)Several other testsTest results are used for research as well as your own benefit/
35OTHER INDICATORS OF STRENGTHS ResilienceSavoringGritPosttraumatic Growth
36FREDRICKSON’S 10 TOP POSITIVE EMOTIONS JoyGratitudeSerenityInterestHopePrideAmusementInspirationAweLove
37MEASURES OF POSITIVE INTERACTIONS The Losada Line and RatioThe Fredrickson Positivity Ratio
38RESEARCH SUPPORTIVE OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONCEPTS EducationHealthAgingWork-relatedThe Military
39POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH Positive psychological well-being is associated with:Fewer coldsReduced mortality in both healthy & ill populationsReduced cardio-vascular diseaseReduced mortality from CVD , renal failure, & HIVFindings with respect to cancer are more equivocalNo study has demonstrated a relationship between pessimism and better health or reduced mortality.
40THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SOCIAL NETWORK Strength of social relationships is the major distinguishing characteristic of the happiest 10 % of the population.(Diener & Seligman, 2002)There are “70 years of evidence that our relationships with others matter, and matter more than anything else in the world (Vaillant, 2009)The concepts of social capital and reciprocity
41THE IMPORTANCE OF A SOCIAL NETWORK You should always go to other people’s funerals; otherwise they won’t come to yours.Yogi Berra
42POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES The What-Went-Well (or 3 Good Things or 3 Blessings) ExerciseThe Gratitude VisitThe 21 day rule for positive behavior changeThe 20 second ruleThe Reverse 20 second ruleThe Modified Presidential Campaign Assessment
44CRITICISMS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY The scientists and philosophersThe generalizers and over-simplifiersThe anti-militaryBarbara Ehrenreich
45INTERNATIONAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ASSOCIATION For information or to join3rd Annual World Congress was held in Los Angeles on June 23-27, 2013
46GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY: A MODEL FOR POSITIVE PRACTICE GAP builds upon the research orientation and philosophy of positive psychology.GAP builds upon effective techniques of practice from several approaches, primarily CBT.GAP introduces unique concepts involving the role of the therapist, the purpose of psychotherapy, history, the goals of treatment, and the process.
47GOAL-ACHIEVING PSYCHOTHERAPY (GAP) Bridges the GAPs between:Thinking and doingGaining and maintainingThe past and the futureScience and practice
48PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF GAP (1) The approach is forward looking and positive.The approach is geared toward building personal strengths to manage change and growth.The focus is primarily on the solution, not the problem.The past is meaningful – especially as it relates to character strengths and achievements.The therapist is active, directive, supportive and a cheerleader for growth and change.
49PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF GAP (2) The patient/client is active in preparing a Mission Statement and setting an achieving goals.Goal setting is designed to ensure maximum success by utilizing small and measureable forward steps.Wallowing is avoided.Activity is the default.Once positive commitment and direction is implemented, other forms of therapy can be incorporated.Positive personality change can take place throughout the life span.
50PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF GAP (3) The Type P Personality is the model of the healthy personality.Emotional health is always a work in progress.GAP principles can be pursued on a do-it-yourself basis, in therapy, or through coaching – depending upon your needs at any specific time.GAP-specific materials are available to aid in the implementation and maintenance of progress.is the ongoing source of GAP resources and information.
51THE GYM AS A MODEL Wellness is a central concept Open to all shapes and sizesIndividual measureable goalsDiagnosis is descriptive, not prescriptive.
52GAP ASSESSMENT ALTERNATIVES TO TRADITIONAL DIAGNOSIS Competent Person’s Disease – “the addiction to 2nd place”The “Too Excuse”Over-thinkingUnder-rating (A/Fail thinking: Ascribing unimportance to achievements; Luck)Waiting for an A
53THE TYPE P PERSONALITY The ultimate goal Assessment is done throughout the processRoughly comparable to PERMA
54TYPE P PERSONALITY Personal goal-directed Proactive Positive PersistentPlayful
55THE INTRODUCTORY SESSION Understanding the reason for treatmentExpression of therapist gratitude as part of informed consentExplanation of process and philosophyHistory-taking within the context of strength-buildingIntroduction to the role of activity level and homework
56THE ROLE OF HISTORYEstablish early the importance of moving forward to develop strengths.Identify unhappy aspects of history – to primarily use in the future.Identify positive aspects of history.“When was the best time in your life?”“What things do you like most about yourself?”“What makes you so resilient?”Be prepared to revisit history from a position of strength.
57GETTING UNSTUCK: THE CRITICAL QUESTIONS Are you a fortune teller?What can go right?What does this have to do with you?How is this getting you where you want to go?What will you do now to maintain your success?
58THE TECHNIQUES OF GAP (1) Vision without execution is hallucination.Thomas Edison
59THE TECHNIQUES OF GAP (2) The Mission StatementThe current goalsBenefitsImpedimentsStrengths to overcome impedimentsAreas for change and growthHealth and fitnessCognitive functioningSocial
60THE TECHNIQUES OF GAP (3) Exercise CardsCreate Your Proactive Positive Explosion FormType P Personality Development FormDEFAULTS ARE ACTIVE
61THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS The therapist as a role modelPhone callsNo showsSuicidal ideation or threatsPatient sabotageSession intensity
62HOW DO YOU KNOW WHEN YOU ARE DONE? Does the person conform to the mission statement?How well does s/he meet the criteria for Type P Personality?Has the personal tipping point (Proactive Positive Explosion) been achieved?Has a maintenance program been put in place?Are conditions right for continued flourishing?
63SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF GAP TO SPECIAL POPULATIONS Some Axis II populationsHabit controlDepressionPTSDHeadache patients
64WHY DOESN’T IT WORK FOR EVERYONE? Nothing does.Expectancy of therapy as a place to wallow may not be met.Using the gym as a model, it is notable that people who drop out may successfully return in the future.Intensity and/or homework turn some people off.It’s still a work in progress without a lot of external input.
65THE CHALLENGEThe incidence of depression has risen every year since the early 20th century.Depression is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. for individuals between the ages ofThe average age of initial diagnosis is getting younger.Depression is the most costly disease in he world although up to half of the cases that meet the criteria for depression at any one time go untreated.IT IS HARD TO BE POSITIVE AND DEPRESSED AT THE SAME TIME.
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