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STANDARD(S): 11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/

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Presentation on theme: "STANDARD(S): 11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/"— Presentation transcript:

1 STANDARD(S): 11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Summarize the impact of the automobile and other consumer goods on American life. 2.Explain how prosperity affected different groups of Americans. 3.Explain in what ways the country’s prosperity was superficial.

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3 NEXT American Industries Flourish Coolidge’s Economic Policy Calvin Coolidge favors minimal government interference in business - allow private enterprise to flourish The Business of America 3 SECTION Continued...

4 SECTION 3: THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA The new president, Calvin Coolidge, fit the pro-business spirit of the 1920s very well His famous quote: “The chief business of the American people is business...the man who builds a factory builds a temple – the man who works there worships there” President Calvin Coolidge

5 AMERICAN BUSINESS FLOURISHES Both Coolidge and his Republican successor Herbert Hoover, favored governmental policies that kept taxes down and business profits up Tariffs were high which helped American manufacturers Government interference in business was minimal Wages were increasing

6 NEXT American Industries Flourish The Business of America 3 SECTION Continued... The Impact of the Automobile Cars change life—paved roads, gas stations, motels, shopping centers Give mobility to rural families, women, young people Workers live far from jobs, leads to urban sprawl (spread of cities) Auto industry economic base for some cities, boosts oil industry By late 1920s, 1 car for every 5 Americans

7 IMPACT OF THE AUTO Among the many changes were: Paved roads, traffic lights Motels, billboards Home design Gas stations, repair shops Shopping centers Freedom for rural families Independence for women and young people Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron grew By % of world’s vehicles in U.S.

8 THE IMPACT OF THE AUTO The auto was the backbone of the American economy from 1920 through the 1970s It also profoundly altered the American landscape and society The Ford Model T was the first car in America. It came only in black and sold for $290. Over 15 million were sold by 1927.

9 Urban Sprawl

10 Chapter 12 Section 3 A – What was the impact of the automobile? –Roads were paved and shopping centers and other services for cars were built’ –People commuted to work, and urban sprawl developed; –Regional differences diminished

11 B – How did the widespread use of the automobile affect the environment and the lives of Americans? –It changed the American landscape through construction of paved roads. –It liberated the isolated rural family. –And it allowed workers to live miles away from their jobs.

12 Invention or Trend Effects of the Invention or Trend Company or Product Automobiles: Helped the economy to boom; spurred the building of paved roads, service stations, garages, and so on; changed architectural styles; gave people greater freedom to travel; reduced the isolation of farm life; led to urban· sprawl; gave Americans a new status symbol. Model T Ford Guided Reading

13 NEXT continued American Industries Flourish The Young Airplane Industry Airplane industry starts as mail service for U.S. Post Office Weather forecasting begins; planes carry radios, navigation tools Lockheed Company produces popular transport plane of late 1920s 1927, Pan American Airways inaugurates transatlantic flights 3 SECTION

14 AIRLINE TRANSPORT BECOMES COMMON The airline industry began as a mail carrying service and quickly “took off” By 1927, Pan American Airways was making the transatlantic passenger flights When commercial flights began, all flight attendants were female and white

15 Invention or Trend Effects of the Invention or Trend Company or Product Airplane industry Established a new means of transportation for people and goods; gave people greater-freedom to travel Lockheed Company Guided Reading

16 NEXT 3 SECTION Incomes Grow Average annual income rises over 35%, from $522 to $705 America’s Standard of Living Soars Continued...

17 AMERICAN STANDARD OF LIVING SOARS The years were prosperous ones for the U.S. Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth The average annual income rose 35% during the 1920s ($522 to $705) Discretionary income increased

18 NEXT 3 SECTION America’s Standard of Living Soars Continued... Electrical Conveniences Factories use electricity to run machines Development of alternating current gives electricity to suburbs By end of 1920s, more homes begin to have electrical appliances Appliances make housework easier, free women for other activities Appliances coincide with trend of women working outside home

19 ELECTRICAL CONVENIENCES While gasoline powered much of the economic boom of the 1920s, the use of electricity also transformed the nation Electric refrigerators, stoves, irons, toasters, vacuums, washing machines and sewing machines were all new

20 C – How did the use of electricity affect Americans’ lifestyle? –It transformed the nation. Factories used electricity to run their machines. –Electricity could now be transmitted to the countryside. –Well-to-do families had electric refrigeration, cooking ranges, and toasters.

21 Invention or Trend Effects of the Invention or Trend Company or Product Alternating electrical current; Made it possible to distribute electric power over greater areas; led to the electrification of homes and widespread use of electrical appliances; made housewives' work easier, freeing them for other activities; led to· more Uniform, conformist lifestyles; helped the economy to boom Electric refrigerator Guided Reading

22 NEXT continued America’s Standard of Living Soars The Dawn of Modern Advertising Advertising agencies hire psychologists to learn to appeal to public Make brand names familiar nationwide; push luxuries as necessities Businesspeople work with service groups - promote selves as benefactors of society 3 SECTION

23 MODERN ADVERTISING EMERGES Ad agencies no longer sought to merely “inform” the public about their products They hired psychologists to study how best to appeal to Americans’ desire for youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth

24 MODERN ADVERTISING EMERGES “Say it with Flowers” slogan actually doubled sales between

25 Invention or Trend Effects of the Invention or Trend Company or Product Advertising: Created greater demand for consumer goods; increased sales and profits; turned luxury items into necessities; helped the economy to boom Listerine Guided Reading

26 NEXT A Superficial Prosperity Producing Great Quantities of Goods Most Americans believe prosperity will last forever Productivity increasing, businesses expanding Mergers in auto industry, steel, electrical equipment, utilities Chain stores develop; national banks allowed to create branches Income gap between workers, managers grows Iron, railroad industries not prosperous; farms suffer losses 3 SECTION Continued...

27 A SUPERFICIAL PROSPERITY Many during the 1920s believed the prosperity would go on forever Wages, production, GNP, and the stock market all rose significantly But....

28 NEXT continued A Superficial Prosperity Buying Goods on Credit Installment plan—pay for goods over extended period with interest Banks provide money at low interest rates Some economists, business owners think installment buying excessive Think is sign of fundamental weakness behind superficial prosperity 3 SECTION

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30 Invention or Trend Effects of the Invention or Trend Company or Product Installment plan: Helped the economy to boom; helped to create a false sense of prosperity; allowed people to buy goods over an extended period of time without having to put up much money at a time of purchase Automobile s Guided Reading

31 PROBLEMS ON THE HORIZON? Businesses expanded recklessly Iron & railroad industries faded Farms nationwide suffered losses due to overproduction Too much was bought on credit (installment plans) including stocks

32 D – What were the main advantages and disadvantages of buying on credit? –Advantage: people could buy goods they could not otherwise afford. –Disadvantage: People could go far into debt without realizing it.

33 E – How do you think the changes in spending will affect the economy? –The economy may falter when consumers are unable to meet their credit obligations.

34 Note 3 things that were, or might have been, seen as “clouds in the blue skies of prosperity” (warning signs). Losses suffered by farmers and mining companies The possibility that installment buying was getting out of band and that it represented a superficial prosperity. Lack of true prosperity in the iron and railroad industries A growing income gap between workers and managers Guided Reading


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