2A GLOBAL DISCONNECT Global differences in definitions of workplace contaminants andstandard samplingmethods for thosecontaminantscreate a variety ofproblems.
3GLOBAL DIFFERENCES IN DEFINTIONS Complicate international comparisons and sharing of dataMake our profession seem illogical to lay people including legislatorsContribute to differences in worker protection in different countriesComplicate the choice of sampling equipment
4GLOBAL DIFFERENCES IN SAMPLERS Result in considerable differences in exposure measurements when sampling the same contaminant under identical environmental conditions.
5A COMMON SENSE APPROACH Since we are interested in health effects, researchers sought to design a personal sampler that would be based “on a biologically relevant definition of total dust, that is, one which represents the total of what the worker takes in through the nose and/or mouth during the act of breathing”.(Ann. Occup. Hyg. Vol. 30, 1986.)
7HISTORICAL EVENTSIn 1982, ACGIH appointed an ad hoc committee on Air Sampling Procedures (ASP) with the task of preparing recommendations for size-selective sampling that would lead to an approach for establishing particle size-selective TLVs for particulates.
8HISTORICAL EVENTSIn 1983, ISO published Technical Report 7708 giving definitions of particle size fractions corresponding to three regions of the respiratory tract. The fraction which would be measured would depend on the site of action of the particulate material under study.
9HISTORICAL EVENTSIn 1985, ACGIH published a report with a similar proposal to that published by ISO.In 1987, an ISO Working Group was established to revise TR7708 as an international standard and a CEN Working Group was established to produce a European standard.
10HISTORICAL EVENTSIn 1993, revisions to Appendix D of the ACGIH TLV booklet, “Particle Size-Selective Sampling Criteria for Airborne Particulate Matter” were adopted by ACGIH.Three particulate mass fractions were defined: inhalable, thoracic and respirable.
12HISTORICAL EVENTSU.S. NIOSH nor OSHA have not officially endorsed the three new international particulate definitions in total.The only published method by U.S. government agencies using inhalable samplers is NIOSH 5700 for formaldehyde on dust specifying an IOM sampler or equivalent.
13HISTORICAL EVENTSThe Health and Safety Executive describes the use of inhalable and respirable samplers that meet the new definitions in MDHS 14/3, “General methods for sampling and gravimetric analysis of respirable and inhalable dust”.
14HISTORICAL EVENTSAustralia has embraced the new definitions of inhalable and respirable particulate mass in the new drafts of the Australian Standards for sampling and gravimetric determination of inhalable dust (AS 3640) and respirable dust (AS2985).
16INHALABLE PARTICULATE MASS Defined as those materials that are hazardous when deposited anywhere in the respiratory tractIncludes particulate matter that enter the head airways region including the nose and mouthAlso includes materials that can produce systemic toxicity from deposition anywhere in the respiratory system.
17INHALABLE SAMPLERSMeet the inhalability criterion when a personal sampler mounted on the body gives the same measured dust concentration and aerodynamic size distribution as that inhaled by its wearer, regardless of dust source location and wind conditions.Defined as having a 50% cut-point of 100 microns.
18TRADITIONAL FILTER CASSETTES Do not effectively sample inhalable particulate matterThey significantly underestimate the concentration of larger dust particles fromm.The inlets do not effectively capture the larger particles, particles adhere to the cassette walls and sample loss can occur when removing the filters.
19INHALABLE SAMPLERS A personal sampler for inhalable particulate was first developed by Markand Vincent in 1986 at the Institute ofOccupational Medicine and licensed formanufacture by SKC.
21USING THE IOM SAMPLER SAMPLE LOGISTICS Load a 25-mm filter into the cassette using forceps and wearing gloves.Equilibrate the filter/cassette assembly overnight under controlled humidity conditions then weigh them as a unit.Allow the assembly to stabilize a few minutes before taking a reading.
22USING THE IOM SAMPLER SAMPLE LOGISTICS Place the IOM cassette/filter assembly into the sampler body, screw on the cover cap, and connect to the pump.Calibrate the flow rate to 2 L/min using the IOM Calibration Adapter (Cat. No ) or by placing in a calibration chamber.Following sample collection, weigh the cassette/filter assembly again following the procedures described above.
23USING THE IOM SAMPLER SAMPLE LOGISTICS Transport clips are available to transport the filter/cassette assemblies to the sampling site or the laboratory (Cat. No A).
24ADVANTAGES OF THE IOMSince the filter and cassette are weighed together, all particles which enter through the sampling inlet are part of the analysis.Any particulate dislodged from the filter due to accidental knocking, will be retained inside the cassette and weighed.
25ADVANTAGES OF THE IOMThe collection efficiency gives an acceptable match to the inhalability definition when worn on the lapel as a personal sampler.The performance is relatively independent of wind speed for particles with aerodynamic diameter up to and including 75 m.
26WEIGHING ACCURACY OF IOM SAMPLES CONCERNSMarch/April 1999 AIHA Journal article discusses problems of water absorption by plastic IOM cassette and resulting instability of the tare weightRESPONSESKC has changed the plastic material to address water. adsorption.Do not desiccateEquilibrate under controlled humidity conditions.Consider stainless steel cassettes.
27NEW IOM RESEARCH BY U.K. HEALTH AND SAFETY LABORATORY Studied the use of porous polyurethane foams as size-selectorsPlaced in the inlet of the IOM samplerAllow for the collection of inhalable and respirable sub fraction using existing IOM samplersFollowed by gravimetric analysisUsed for a variety of particulates including bioaerosols
29PUBLICATIONS ON IOM BY HSE LAB HSE Lab Publication on Foam Discs, Project Leader: L C KennyJournal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp , 1999 on sampling efficiency with low air movementAIHA Journal, Vol. 59, pp , 1998 on sampling with foams for bioaerosolsMethods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14, Health and Safety Executive, January 1997
30NEW INHALABLE RESEARCH BY UNIV OF CINCINNATI Button Sampler -Alternative to the IOM sampler for inhalable dustInlet is formed from a sphericalshell with numerous, evenlyspaced holesHoles act as orifices andprovide multidirectionalsampling capabilitiesCat. No
31USING THE BUTTON SAMPLER SAMPLE LOGISTICS Unscrew the sampler inlet and remove the PTFE O-ring.Place a 25-mm filter on the stainless steel support screen, replace the 0-ring and the sampler inlet.A filter pore size of 1.0 m or higher is recommended due to the backpressure limitations of personal samplers.
32USING THE BUTTON SAMPLER SAMPLE LOGISTICS Calibrate the Button Sampler to a flowrate of 4 L/min using the calibration adapter (Cat. No ) or by placing in a calibration chamber.After sampling, remove the filter for analysis. SKC offers a conductive plastic filter transport case for shipment to the lab. (Cat. No )
33ADVANTAGES OF BUTTON SAMPLER Closed-face inlet keeps out large particles25-mm filter directly behind inlet avoids transmission losses in samplerUniform distribution of holes minimizes sensitivity to wind velocity and directionFlow rate of 4 L/min for personalsampling increases sensitivityCan be used for personal or area sampling
34PUBLICATIONS ON BUTTON SAMPLER BY UNIV OF CINCINNATI AIHA Journal, Vol. 61, , 2000 on performance characteristicsAerosol Science and Technology,Vol. 28, , 1998 on effects of wind velocity and directionAIHA Journal, Vol. 58, , 1997 on field testing of samplerAtmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 10, pp , 1995 on design of prototype
35CONCLUSIONS REPORTED For the Button Personal Sampler Effects of wind direction: No significant effectsEffects of wind velocity: Lower than for IOM, GSP and 37-mm cassetteAccuracy (direction-averaged): Better an 37-mm cassette, comparable to GSP, lower than IOMPrecision (direction-specific): Equal or better than IOM, GSP, or 37-mm cassette
36ABRASIVE BLASTINGA NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation indicated that current methods do not provide reliable measurements of worker exposure to lead and other contaminants during abrasive blasting in small confined spaces.
37ABRASIVE BLASTINGCurrent sampling methods using 37-mm cassettes often grossly overestimate exposure to very large, noninhalable particulate.In NIOSH HHEs, nearly all of the lead in the samples was due to grit that entered the cassettes due to rebound of grit in confined spaces.
38JOURNAL ARTICLE APPLIED OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE, Vol. 15, p , 2000 on use of ButtonSampler with screen for evaluating metalexposures among abrasive blastingworkers at four US Air ForceFacilities
39OTHER INHALABLE SAMPLERS 7-HOLE SAMPLING HEADTraditional European method using a 25-mm filter and cassette with an end cap with 7 equispaced inlet holes with flows of 2.0 L/min.
42INHALABLE TLVs 2010 ADOPTED VALUES Methyl parathionMevinphosMineral oil (excluding metal working fluids)Molybdenum (Metal and insoluble cpds.)Monochloroacetic acidMonocrotophosNaledNatural rubber latex as total proteinsNickel, Elemental, Soluble and Insoluble Cpds.Nickel Subsulfide5-Nitro-o-toluidinep,p-Oxybis (benzene sulfonyl hydrazide)ParathionParticulates Not Otherwise Specified (now a guideline; not a TLV)Phoratem-PhthalodinitrileRonnel
44INHALABLE TLVs 2010 INTENDED CHANGES Carbon blackMaleic anhydrideManganese (elemental and inorganic cpds., as Mn)Piperazine4,4-Thiobis (6-tert-butyl-m-cresol)Toluene 2,4- or 2,6-diisocyanate (or as a mixture)
45DATA CONVERSION?? TOTAL TO INHALABLE Aerosol Classification and Conversion Factor-Dust 2.5-Mist 2.0-Foundries 1.5-Welding 1.0-Smokes/fumes 1.0Published by Werner et. al. in the Analyst, 121:1207
46THE FUTURE OF SIZE-SELECTIVE SAMPLING More inhalable TLVsNew thoracic TLVsDevelopment of thoracic samplersEnhanced use of foams as pre-selectors