Presentation on theme: "English Language Arts Content Specifications, Item Specifications, and Depth of Knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
English Language Arts Content Specifications, Item Specifications, and Depth of Knowledge
Purpose of Training Module Introduce primary source materials – Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy – Smarter Balanced Content Specifications – Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications Describe how these documents will be used for item writing Define Depth of Knowledge
Foundation for Item and Task Development Common Core State Standards Smarter Balanced Content Specifications Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications Items and Performance Tasks
Structure of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K–5 Standards for English Language Arts 6–12 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Structure of the Common Core State Standards Strands Reading Writing Language Speaking/Listening Reading Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Reading Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Writing Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Writing Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Language Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Language Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Speaking/Listening Anchor Standards 1. … 10. Speaking/Listening Anchor Standards 1. … 10. – College and career readiness anchor standards Grade-specific standards Grade 6 Grade 9 Grade 3 Grade 6 Grade 9 Grade 3 Grade 6 Grade 9 Grade 3 Grade 6 Grade 9 Grade 3
Structure of the Content Specifications Item Development Guidelines for all Selected Response and Constructed Response Items and Performance Tasks Each SR and CR item should be written to focus primarily on one assessment target. Secondary targets are acceptable for some Claim 1 targets and should be listed in the item forms. Each PT should be written to multiple claims and targets. Items/tasks should be clearly written to elicit the desired evidence of a student’s knowledge, skills, and abilities. Items/tasks should avoid measurement of a student’s feelings or values. Items/tasks should not provide an advantage or disadvantage to a particular group of students. Items should not exhibit or reflect disrespect to any segment of the population in regard to age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, or geographic region. Universal design principles must be followed. Universal design, as applied to assessments, is a concept that allows the widest possible range of students to participate in assessments and may even reduce the need for accommodations and alternative assessments by expanding access to the tests themselves. All items/tasks must be coded to the Smarter Balanced cognitive levels as indicated on page 68 of this document. Vocabulary items should follow the Common Core State Standards 3-tier words and academic vocabulary as described on pages 69-70 of this document. The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium Content Specifications for English Language Arts and Literacy is a bridge document linking the Common Core State Standards to the Smarter Balanced assessment claims and targets. Guidelines for Developing Stems in SR Items Stems should present a complete problem so that students know what to do before looking at the options; students should not need to read all options before knowing what is expected. Grades 3–5 stems should be in the form of a question. An open stem, however, may be used if doing so will reduce wordiness and repetition. Grades 6–11 permit open-ended stems, and there should be a variety of stem types. The decision for choosing open or closed stems should be based on ease of reading and clarity. Guidelines for Developing Options in SR Items All options should be plausible and there must be a correct or best answer. All options, including the correct response, should be similar in length and syntax. Students should not be able to rule out a wrong answer or identify a correct response solely because it looks or sounds different from the other options. All options should be arranged according to a logical order (e.g., vocabulary words, details, or quotations from the passage should follow the order used in the text). All options must be followed by distractor analyses which help item writers think through students’ common misunderstandings of a concept.
Structure of the Content Specifications Part I: Introduction and Background – Development Process for the Major Claims and Assessment Target Part II: Content Specifications: Mapping Assessment Targets to Standards Part III: Claims, Rationale, Evidence, Assessment Targets, Proposed Reporting Categories References & Appendices – Appendix A: Cognitive Rigor Matrix/Depth of Knowledge – Appendix B: Grade Level Tables for Reading Assessment Targets – Appendix C: Tools for Examining Text Complexity
Cognitive Rigor and Depth of Knowledge The level of complexity of the cognitive demand. – Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. – Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond a recall of information. – Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations of thinking. – Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking most likely over an extended period of time.
Cognitive Rigor Matrix This matrix from the Smarter Balanced Content Specifications for ELA draws from both Bloom’s (revised) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives and Webb’s Depth-of-Knowledge Levels below.
Structure of the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium English Language Arts Item Specifications Evidence Statements Task Models Sample Items
The Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium English Language Arts Content Specifications Claim 1: Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Reading, literary and informational text. Claim 2: Students can produce effective and well grounded writing for a range of purpose and audiences. Claim 3: Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim 4: Students can engage in research/inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information.
Claim 1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. 1.Targets 1–7 correspond with literary texts 2.Targets 8–14 correspond with informational texts 3.The assessment targets incorporate the content clusters from the Common Core State Standards
Grade 5 Claim 1 Target 4 4. REASONING & EVIDENCE: Use supporting evidence to justify interpretations (theme, events, conflicts/challenges, setting, character development/ interactions, point of view) Standards: RL-2, RL-3, RL-6 (DOK 3) RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. RL-3 Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). RL-6 Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.
Claim 2 Students can produce effective and well grounded writing for a range of purpose and audiences. – Targets 1, 3, & 6: Revise/Write Brief Texts – Targets 2, 4, & 7: Compose Full Texts including essays and narratives – Target 5: Use of text features, e.g., headings, subheadings, etc. – Target 8: Language & Vocabulary Use – Target 9: Edit/Clarify
Grade 7 Claim 2 Target 1 1. WRITE/REVISE BRIEF TEXTS: Apply narrative strategies (e.g., dialogue, description,) and appropriate text structures and transitional strategies for coherence when writing or revising one or more paragraphs of narrative text (e.g. closure, introduce narrator or use dialogue when describing an event) Standards: W-3a, W-3b, W-3c, W-3d, and/or W-3e (DOK 2) W-3 a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
Claim 3 Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. 1.Language & Vocabulary Use 2.Clarify Message 3. Plan/Speak/Present 4. Listen/Interpret
Grade 11 Claim 3 Target 3 3. PLAN/SPEAK/PRESENT: Gather and organize information compose and orally deliver short (e.g., summaries) and longer (presentations) for different purposes and audiences drawing from a range of digital media to enhance the message or intent Standards: SL-1 SL-4 SL-5 SL-6 (DOK 3 DOK 4) SL-1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one in groups and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics texts and issues building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. SL-4 Present information findings and supporting evidence conveying a clear and distinct perspective such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the organization development substance and style are appropriate to purpose audience and a range of formal and informal tasks. SL-5 Make strategic use of digital media (e.g. textual graphical audio visual and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings reasoning and evidence and to add interest. SL-6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Claim 4 Students can engage in research / inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. 1. Plan/Research 2. Interpret & Integrate Information 3. Analyze Information/Sources 4. Use Evidence
Grade 4 Claim 4 Target 3 3. ANALYZE INFORMATION/SOURCES: Distinguish relevant- irrelevant information (e.g., fact/opinion) Standards: W-8, W-9 (DOK 2) W-8 Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. W-9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Evidence Statements Define the information or products elicited from students Task models designed to elicit evidence Sample items provide concrete examples of the characteristics specified in a task model
Grade 5 Evidence Statement for Grade 5 Claim 1 Target 4 Evidence Required: When reading literary texts, students 1.Determine the theme of a story and justify their interpretation by pointing to textual evidence from such elements as the story’s events, conflicts and resolutions, and the interactions between characters. Or 2.Compare and contrast characters, settings, or critical events from different parts of a story to form an interpretation justifying that interpretation through specific textual evidence. Or 3.Justify interpretations of how the author’s choice of narrator affects the theme, tone, or perspective on events of a text using textual evidence.
Alignment to Claims and Assessment Targets, Primary Claims & Secondary Claims Claim 1: Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target 4: REASONING & EVALUATION: Use supporting evidence to justify interpretations of such story elements as theme, events, conflicts/challenges, setting, character development/interactions, or point of view. Secondary Target(s): Target 1. KEY DETAILS: Use explicit details and implicit information from the text to support answers or make inferences about information presented
Task Models Model 1: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to make an inference or draw a conclusion about how the author develops the theme. Response uses relevant text evidence as support. SR: Selected Response CR: Constructed Response ER: Extended Response TE: Technology-Enhanced PT: Performance Task
Task Models Grade 11 Claim 1 Target 4 Task Models: Model 1: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to make an inference or draw a conclusion about how the author develops the theme. Response uses relevant text evidence as support. Model 2: 2-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze how point of view impacts the development of the plot. Response uses relevant text evidence as support. Model 3: 3-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze the author’s choices regarding character development. Response uses relevant text evidence as support. Model 4: 3-pt CR (DOK 3) – prompts students to analyze how the author uses irony in a text.
Alignment to Claims and Assessment Targets, Primary Claims & Secondary Claims Common Core State Standards: foundation for claims and assessment targets Smarter Balanced Content Specifications: define claims and assessment targets – Depth of Knowledge: Level of cognitive processes applied by students Smarter Balanced Item and Task Specifications: define evidence required and describe task models