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A PPENDIX A H ARDWARE A PPENDIX B S OFTWARE. S TUFF FOR CLASS.

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Presentation on theme: "A PPENDIX A H ARDWARE A PPENDIX B S OFTWARE. S TUFF FOR CLASS."— Presentation transcript:

1 A PPENDIX A H ARDWARE A PPENDIX B S OFTWARE

2 S TUFF FOR CLASS

3 3 SIX MAJOR ROLES AND GOALS OF IT 1.Increase employee productivity by reducing time, errors and costs using 2.Enhance decision making 3.Improve team collaboration 4.Create business partnerships and alliances 5.Enable global reach all over the world taking into consideration the culture of each nation or society. 6.Facilitate organizational transformation as the organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing marketplace.

4 A-4 C OMPUTER H ARDWARE Output Device Monitor Input Device Keyboard Processing Device The System Unit

5 A-5 I NPUT D EVICES – T EXT AND P OINTING

6 A-6 I NPUT N EEDS AND D EVICES

7 A-7 P ROCESSING Processing The role of ___________ in a computer system is to translate inputs into outputs. This is done through a combination of language and system components Language Computers speak a language called ___________ or “machine language” which consists of 0s & 1s Language Computers speak a language called ___________ or “machine language” which consists of 0s & 1s System Unit The physical box that houses all of the working electronic ___________ of the computer System Unit The physical box that houses all of the working electronic ___________ of the computer

8 A-8 P ROCESSING – L ANGUAGE Binary or Machine Language The language that all computers use IT is expressed in 0s or 1s only (see below) Binary utilizes Base-2 math to convert from normal characters to binary code (e.g. A = in binary) Binary or Machine Language The language that all computers use IT is expressed in 0s or 1s only (see below) Binary utilizes Base-2 math to convert from normal characters to binary code (e.g. A = in binary) A = Bit A single 0 or 1 Bit A single 0 or 1 Byte (8 bits) Makes up one character Byte (8 bits) Makes up one character Binary ExampleHow a Computer Uses it

9 A-9 P ROCESSING – T HE S YSTEM U NIT The System Unit The physical box that houses all of the working electronic components of the computer The System Unit The physical box that houses all of the working electronic components of the computer Components Support – electronic equipment to run the machine Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the primary processor in a computer Primary Storage – temporary and permanent storage used by the computer to operate ___________ Storage – longer-term storage for data Ports and Slots – mechanisms to connect devices and specialty processors Components Support – electronic equipment to run the machine Central Processing Unit (CPU) – the primary processor in a computer Primary Storage – temporary and permanent storage used by the computer to operate ___________ Storage – longer-term storage for data Ports and Slots – mechanisms to connect devices and specialty processors

10 A-10 P ROCESSING – M OTHER B OARD Motherboard Central Processing Unit (CPU) RAM and ROM ___________ Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive) Slots - connecting specialty ___________ Ports - connecting input/output devices

11 A-11 P ROCESSING – C ENTRAL P ROCESSING U NIT Central Processing Unit (CPU) Called the “brains of the computer”, its role is to perform the operations of the computer using two components: Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and transmits direction to the computer’s components ___________ ___________ ___________ – this device performs math as well as logical operations by interpreting and executing instructions Central Processing Unit (CPU) Called the “brains of the computer”, its role is to perform the operations of the computer using two components: Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and transmits direction to the computer’s components ___________ ___________ ___________ – this device performs math as well as logical operations by interpreting and executing instructions

12 A-12 P ROCESSING – C ENTRAL P ROCESSING U NIT Moore’s Law (1970s) ___________ ___________ from Intel hypothesized that processing performance would double every 18 months Moore’s Law (1970s) ___________ ___________ from Intel hypothesized that processing performance would double every 18 months CPU Processing Intel Pentium IV CPU packs 55 million transistors CPU Processing Intel Pentium IV CPU packs 55 million transistors

13 A-13 P ROCESSING – P RIMARY S TORAGE Primary Storage This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes in ___________ and ___________ types Primary Storage This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes in ___________ and ___________ types ___________ Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called ___________ ___________ ) ___________ Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM or also called ___________ ___________ )

14 A-14 P ROCESSING – S ECONDARY S TORAGE Hard Drives Diskettes ___________ Tape Optical Disk Magneto-Optical (MO) Compact Disk (CD) Digital Video Disk (DVD Hard Drives Diskettes ___________ Tape Optical Disk Magneto-Optical (MO) Compact Disk (CD) Digital Video Disk (DVD Secondary Storage This ___________ ___________ is used to permanently store information and is not part of the CPU but is connected through the system bus. It comes in many types: Secondary Storage This ___________ ___________ is used to permanently store information and is not part of the CPU but is connected through the system bus. It comes in many types:

15 A-15 P ROCESSING – P ORTS AND S LOTS These are devices used to provide hardware ___________ – plugs and sockets - to ___________ devices to computers and ___________ to provide a fully functional computer

16 A-16 O UTPUT D EVICES Video A visual display of data that supports motion using a ___________ (monochrome or colour) coming in two types: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD ___________ – A device that projects a picture onto a screen Video A visual display of data that supports motion using a ___________ (monochrome or colour) coming in two types: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD ___________ – A device that projects a picture onto a screen CRT LCD

17 A-17 O UTPUT D EVICES Printers and Plotters A visual display that is presented on hard copy (e.g. paper) Dot Matrix – Ink-jet – ___________ Printers and Plotters A visual display that is presented on hard copy (e.g. paper) Dot Matrix – Ink-jet – ___________ Audio

18 A-18 T YPES OF C OMPUTERS ___________ ___________ Computers ___________ Workstations Microcomputers Midrange Computers

19 A-19 T YPES OF C OMPUTERS – M ICROCOMPUTERS Personal Computers Network ___________ Tablet PC ___________ Computer 1 laptop per child

20 B-20 C LASSES OF S OFTWARE ___________ The collection of programs that control the basic functions of computer hardware ___________ The collection of programs that control the basic functions of computer hardware ___________ Software Programs that let the user perform a specific task or operation by interacting with the system software ___________ Software Programs that let the user perform a specific task or operation by interacting with the system software ___________ Languages and Environments Automated software tools used by system developers to design and implement information systems ___________ Languages and Environments Automated software tools used by system developers to design and implement information systems

21 B-21 S YSTEM S OFTWARE – A. K. A. O PERATING S YSTEMS Common Functions ___________ or (starting) the computer Reading programs into memory and managing memory allocation Managing where programs and files are located in secondary storage Maintaining the structure of directories and subdirectories ___________ disks Controlling the computer monitor ___________ documents to the printer

22 B-22 O PERATING S YSTEM – I NTERFACES ___________ After boot up, the computer provides an interface for the user or programmer to interact with it. Different ___________ systems use different types Common Interface Type Command-based interface– Menu interface – Graphical user interface (___________ ) Common Interface Type Command-based interface– Menu interface – Graphical user interface (___________ )

23 B-23 C OMMON O PERATING S YSTEMS

24 B-24 O PERATING S YSTEMS - U TILITIES Utilities: Programs that manage computer resources and files and may be included in the operating system or purchased separately as needed Utilities: Programs that manage computer resources and files and may be included in the operating system or purchased separately as needed

25 B-25 A PPLICATION S OFTWARE ___________ Software This software performs specific user functions (e.g. ) ___________ Software This software performs specific user functions (e.g. ) ___________ Application Software Software that is developed to meet the specification of an organization. This can be developed “___________ ” by IS staff or by an ___________ vendor. Advantages include: Customizability – tailored to meet specific needs Problem specificity – pay for only those functions that are developed for and used by the organization ___________ Application Software Software that is developed to meet the specification of an organization. This can be developed “___________ ” by IS staff or by an ___________ vendor. Advantages include: Customizability – tailored to meet specific needs Problem specificity – pay for only those functions that are developed for and used by the organization ___________ ___________ Software Packaged software developed by a vendor for a particular problem or industry but is not specific to an organization. This is a lower cost approach that may be combined with custom development to tailor it ___________ ___________ Software Packaged software developed by a vendor for a particular problem or industry but is not specific to an organization. This is a lower cost approach that may be combined with custom development to tailor it

26 B-26 T YPES OF A PPLICATION S OFTWARE Types of Application Software Application software come in two types for use by organizations: 1) large business systems and office automation; 2) ___________ productivity tools ___________ These large systems support enterprise- wide operations such as: ___________ -A/P, A/R, general ledger, payroll ___________ - inventory management, order processing, shipping, etc. ___________ These large systems support enterprise- wide operations such as: ___________ -A/P, A/R, general ledger, payroll ___________ - inventory management, order processing, shipping, etc. ___________ Used by individuals or groups to support a variety of common tasks such as: Communication – , word processing ___________ – group calendars Analysis - spreadsheets ___________ Used by individuals or groups to support a variety of common tasks such as: Communication – , word processing ___________ – group calendars Analysis - spreadsheets

27 B-27 O PEN S OURCE S OFTWARE ___________ A special class of software that includes operating systems, application software, and programming languages in which the source code (the actual program code) is freely available to the general public for use and/or modification ___________ A special class of software that includes operating systems, application software, and programming languages in which the source code (the actual program code) is freely available to the general public for use and/or modification Popular Open Source Applications A number of mainstream open source applications can be found across many organizations. Here are just a few: Operating systems – Linux ___________– Mozilla Web servers – Apache processing – Sendmail Internet domain naming service – BIND Secure connection standard - OpenSSL Popular Open Source Applications A number of mainstream open source applications can be found across many organizations. Here are just a few: Operating systems – Linux ___________– Mozilla Web servers – Apache processing – Sendmail Internet domain naming service – BIND Secure connection standard - OpenSSL

28 B-28 C OMPILERS, L ANGUAGES, AND E NVIRONMENTS ___________ Software designed to translate programming languages into machine code or binary in order to allow the computer to execute the program instructions ___________ Software designed to translate programming languages into machine code or binary in order to allow the computer to execute the program instructions ___________ Languages used to write program instructions that have evolved from early “machine language” to higher-level languages that are easier to write and understand ___________ Languages used to write program instructions that have evolved from early “machine language” to higher-level languages that are easier to write and understand ___________ ___________ ___________ Automated software tools used by systems developers to design and implement information systems and increase quality and productivity ___________ ___________ ___________ Automated software tools used by systems developers to design and implement information systems and increase quality and productivity

29 B-29 C OMPILERS AND I NTERPRETERS ___________ These highly-specialized software applications are used to convert program instructions (source code) into the machine code (object code) prior to being loaded into a computer’s secondary storage ( entire program ) ___________ These highly-specialized software applications are used to convert program instructions (source code) into the machine code (object code) prior to being loaded into a computer’s secondary storage ( entire program ) Compiler Example

30 B-30 C OMPILERS AND I NTERPRETERS ___________ These specialized software applications are similar to compilers but instead of translating the source code to machine language prior to loading, it reads, translates, and executes one line of source code at a time during operation ( one line at a time ) ___________ These specialized software applications are similar to compilers but instead of translating the source code to machine language prior to loading, it reads, translates, and executes one line of source code at a time during operation ( one line at a time ) Interpreter Example

31 B-31 P ROGRAMMING L ANGUAGES - G ENERATIONS Programming Languages These languages are used to write program instructions and have evolved over time making them more powerful, easier to read and write, and more natural language-focused Programming Languages These languages are used to write program instructions and have evolved over time making them more powerful, easier to read and write, and more natural language-focused 1 st Machine Binary 2 nd Symbolic Use of symbols 1940s 3 rd High-Level Use English like words for procedures 4 th Outcome Oriented Use outcome focused words 1950s mid 1950s 1970s 5 th Artificial Intelligence Natural language (spoken English) Generations of Programming Languages 1990s

32 B-32 P OPULAR P ROGRAMMING L ANGUAGES

33 B-33 P ROGRAMMING L ANGUAGES – M ORE R ECENT H IGH -L EVEL Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) These languages allow programmers to group data and program instructions together into modules (e.g Java or C++). Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) These languages allow programmers to group data and program instructions together into modules (e.g Java or C++). Visual Languages These languages take advantage of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allowing additions of visual objects (e.g. buttons) with a few clicks versus coding the object pixel by pixel Visual Languages These languages take advantage of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allowing additions of visual objects (e.g. buttons) with a few clicks versus coding the object pixel by pixel

34 B-34 P ROGRAMMING L ANGUAGES – W EB D EVELOPMENT Web Development Languages These languages are used to develop Web pages and operations using both static and dynamic content Web Development Languages These languages are used to develop Web pages and operations using both static and dynamic content ___________ Markup Language (HTML) ___________ Markup Language (XML) ___________ Content Markup languages are used for laying out or formatting content, while dynamic languages are needed to provide animation or dynamic (changing) content ___________ Content Markup languages are used for laying out or formatting content, while dynamic languages are needed to provide animation or dynamic (changing) content Dynamic Languages Several languages are available for creating dynamic content such as: ___________ – ___________ X – Scripting Languages (JavaScript) – Dynamic Languages Several languages are available for creating dynamic content such as: ___________ – ___________ X – Scripting Languages (JavaScript) –


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