Presentation on theme: "APPENDIX A: MAPS APHUG | BHS | Ms. Justice. Maps Any map is an incomplete representation of reality: 1. It is smaller than the world it represents 2."— Presentation transcript:
APPENDIX A: MAPS APHUG | BHS | Ms. Justice
Maps Any map is an incomplete representation of reality: 1. It is smaller than the world it represents 2. It must depict a curved surface on a flat plane 3. It contains symbols to convey information that must be transmitted to the reader These are three fundamental properties of all maps: 1. Scale 2. Projection 3. Symbols
Map Scale The scale of a map reveals how much the real world has been reduced to fit on the page or screen on which it appears The ratio between actual distance and the length given to that distance on the map that can be represented: Ratio (1:10,000) Fraction (1/10,000) Graphic form
Map Scale "Large scale" refers to maps on which objects are relatively large, "small scale" to maps on which objects are relatively small.
Map Projections: Latitude & Longitude Lines of latitude and longitude provide a frame of reference for cartographers Prime Meridian, Greenwich, England
Map Projections: Mercator Projection Invented in 1859 by a Flemish cartographer Cylindrical projection Parallels and meridians cross at right angles Direction is true everywhere on this map – excellent for navigation Distortion grows toward the poles – continents appear stretched out and misshapen in higher latitudes
Map Projections: Mercator Projection
Map Projections: Robinson Projection Developed by American cartographer Arthur Robinson in 1963 Lines of longitude curve toward each other in polar regions Substantially reduces the exaggerated size of polar land masses (better approximates shape) Lacks the directional utility of the Mercator projections Used by the National Geographic Society since 1988
Map Projections: Robinson Projection
Map Projections: Interrupted Projection Broken meridians Typically, breaks are designed to fall upon less important areas, like oceans Equal-area map that avoids distortions or land masses
Map Projections: Interrupted Projection
Symbols on Maps: Examples Prominent dots = cities Large dot w/a circle around it, or a star = capital Red lines = roads Double lines = 4 lane highways Black lines = railroads Blue = water Green = forests Etc.
Symbols on Maps: Dot Map A dot map shows a spatial representation On this map, each dot represents the location of a commercial cell phone tower in the U. S.
Lines represent a certain consistent height above sea level Symbols on Maps: Contour Map
Other Maps: Thematic Maps
Other Maps: Flow-Line Maps Good for determining movement – such as migration
Other Maps: Choropleth Maps Put data into a spatial format. Useful for determining demographic data, by assigning colors or patterns to areas
Other Maps: Cartograms Chart and assign data by size World population World child mortality