Presentation on theme: "The Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN)"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN) Presented by: Sam Beaumont, Delilah Bolo, & Katrin Denda
2 M-FUN Author: Lucy Jane Miller Publisher: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. Publishing date: 2006Cost:Miller Function and Participation Scales Complete Kit with Manipulatives- Includes Workbooks and Checklists $399.00Accessories:Record Forms (Pkg. of 25) $59.00Workbooks (Pkg. of 25) $46.50Checklists (Pkg. of 25) $20.80
3 M-FUNPurpose:M-FUN helps determine how a child’s motor competency affects his/her ability to engage in home and school activities and to participate sociallyM-FUN can be used to determine or identify:Visual motor, fine motor, and/or gross motor delayEligibility for servicesMotor abilities that may benefit from home and/or classroom adaptations and accommodationsUnderlying neuromotor foundational issues (i.e., problems with hand functions, strength, and endurance)Curriculum-relevant interventionsChild’s progress toward intervention goals
4 M-FUN Type of assessment: M-FUN is a developmental tool. It is a standardized assessment tool and includes a set of questionnaires40-60 min. to complete the standardized portion, and 5-10 min. for the caregiver, teacher, or examiner to complete each checklist
5 M-FUN Population and age range: Age range: 2 years 6 months to 7 years 11 monthsolder children with motor delays may be tested for progress, but no normsChildren with mild, moderate, or severe motor delay could be tested
6 M-FUN Domains and Subtests: There is a performance component and participation componentWith the tasks and checklists, administers will be able to obtain knowledge about: self-care, functional use of tools, functional mobility, purposeful hand-eye coordination, and participation in home and school activitiesFrameworks: looking at play/leisure, education, ADLs
7 M-FUN Domains and Subtests: Performance Assessment: visual motor, fine motor, and gross motor scaled score. They could all be administered in one sitting or multiple.15-16 activities total, depending on ageneurological foundations are observed in each activity can be categorized into four areas: hand function, postural abilities, executive function and participation, and non-motor visual perceptionParticipation Assessment: Home, classroom, and test observation checkliststeachers, caregivers, or someone who routinely works with child should complete home and classroom observations
8 M-FUN Qualifications to administer: A variety of professionals may choose to use the M-FUN, including the fields of: OT, PT, special education, adaptive physical education, early childhood interventionistsExaminers should have experience in standardized test administration, scoring, and interpretation, and detailed knowledge of motor development and sensory processing in young children
9 Psychometric Properties ReliabilityTest-retest (after 0 to 21 days):Moderately high reliability across time for all ages. The reliability coefficient ranged from .77 (Visual Motor and Gross Motor) to .82 (Fine Motor).Internal consistency:For standardization sample: the average coefficients were good (.85 for the visual motor test) to excellent (.90 for the fine motor test and .92 for the gross motor test).The average coefficients for the Home, Classroom, and Test Observations checklists were excellent, ranging from .95 to .96Inter-rater reliability (5 pairs of examiners; 29 children):The correlation between raters’ scores was .91 for Visual Motor, .93 for Fine Motor, and .91 for Gross Motor.There was a high degree of consistency between scorers’ interpretations: the average decision agreement (i.e. identifying the child as performing in the average range or as having a motor impairment) was 96% for Visual Motor, 97% for Fine Motor, and 93% for Gross Motor..
10 Psychometric Properties ValidityContent Validity:M-FUN content reflects the developmental progression of motor abilities in children 2 yrs 6 mo through 7 yrs 11 moM-FUN activities are assessed in the context of visual motor, fine motor, and gross motor „games“; in addition, M-FUN has three checklists (Home, Classroom, and Test Observations) that focus on activity completion and participationActivities are constructed to be relevant to tasks leading to early school successInternal Structure:Moderate to high correlations among the 3 tests, ranging from .47 (Visual Motor and Gross Motor) to .58 (Fine Motor and Gross Motor). The correlation between Visual Motor and Fine Motor was .55Relationship to other variables:Moderate to high correlation b/w the Miller Assessment of Preschoolers (MAP) and the M-FUN (from .47 to .83), suggesting the two tests yield different but complementary information about a child’s motor skillsClinical validity statistics:Clinical validation studies indicate that M-FUN is very sensitive to the motor difficulties of children identified as having motor delays and provide strong support for clinical utility.
11 Administration Scheduling Testing Child should be well-rested and ready to give “best performance”Adequate time to administer the test (40-60 min. to complete the standardized portion, and 5-10 min. for the caregiver, teacher, or examiner to complete each checklist)Testing MaterialsM-FUN Administration DirectionsRecord form (for ages 2:6-3:11 or ages 4:0-7:11)Workbook (for ages 2:6-3:11 or ages 4:0-7:11)Manipulatives (some are included in test kit; others have to be purchased)
12 Administration (cont‘d) Testing EnvironmentM-FUN can be administered anywhere (i.e. school, office, clinic, sheltered area of home) as long as it is quiet and there are no distractionsTesting area should be well lit, ventilated, and large enough to perform all activitiesBecause some of the gross motor activities require the child to have good balance and traction, tester should be aware of testing area’s flooring and child’s shoes >> if necessary, remove child’s shoes / socks for gross motor activitiesTester and child should sit in child-sized chairs if availableChild should be properly supported to not lose balance during testing activities
13 Administration (cont‘d) Establishing rapport with child and testing the itemsAllow caregivers to be presentbegin the session by putting child at easeDo a warm-up activity when testing 2 and 3 year old childrenKnow the administration directions (activities should be administered in order according to the Manual: start with Visual Motor; then Fine Motor; have a snack; finally Gross Motor) – however, there is flexibility if child is slow to warm upKeep stimulus materials out of child‘s sight until needed for test (to avoid distractions)Be enthusiasticGive sufficient verbal reinforcement to maintain child‘s interest in test (i.e. ok to say „Good job!“ – but don‘t tell child if s/he answered an item correctly)Use motivators (i.e. ok to use stickes, etc.)
14 Administration (cont‘d) Testing itemsFollow Administration DirectionsAll M-FUN games begin w/ a teaching and practice item during which tester can provide as many cues as necessary for child to understand the task (>>only on practice items)Possible to reword directionsExplain why correct answer is correctExplain what the child needs to pay attention to in pictures in order to get practice item correctGiving physical cues (including guiding a child‘s hand for VM or FM, or placing the child in the correct position for GM)when testing the item, CANNOT change wording of directions or cue the childCan repeat the directions or repeat a stimulus one time
16 Scoring Record form for two different age groups: 2 years 6 months- 3 years 11 months4 years – 7 years 11 monthsParticipation Assessment (Checklists)Add all “1”s in each columnMultiply by number stated on formAdd all multiplied scores together for total
18 Transfer to Scores Summary: Participation Scores See Appendix F to determine if child is Average, Below Average, or Far Below Average for each observation area.
19 Scoring Performance Assessment Each item has specific criteria for scoring, usually from 0-3Each item is broken down into multiple componentsObtain a total score for each itemTest all activities and items within activities with a few exceptions0= unable to perform skill3= mastery of skillSometimes scale goes only to “2” or all the way to “5”
24 Scoring Performance Score Differences Can determine differences in scores of:VM and FMVM and GMFM and GMCan determine if these differences are significant (.15 or .05)Helps identify areas of strength and weaknessCritical value for .15 = difference of 2Critical value for .05= difference of 3
29 Scoring Neurological Foundations Profile Circle item numbers for which the child scored “0” or “1” pointMay want to use different colors to differentiate if item was “0” or “1”Able to identify areas that did not receive full creditThese areas may become a focus for interventions and/or making recommendations to parents
31 Interpretation Can determine areas of strength and weakness Can identify significant differences in skillsCan determine if child is at, above, or below his age groupCan identify the child’s percentile rank and relationship to mean (standard deviation)How the child performs in different environmentsCan track progress
32 Advantages Fun, age-appropriate games Opportunity for practice / teaching by giving cues to ensure child understands taskSimple administrationStraightforward scoring criteria w/ sample scoringMultiple ways to interpret data (age equivalent, track progress, confidence interval, Neurological Profile, etc)Considers multiple skill areas in itemsChecklists from various perspectivesHelps determine eligibility for services
33 Disadvantages Scoring can be time consuming Be familiar w/ scoring components before administrationAdministrator has to be extremely observant of child‘s performance (b/c of behavior rating throughout test)Need parent and teacher involvement
34 ReferencesMiller, L. J. (2006). Miller Function & Participation Scales: Examiner’s Manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.Pearson Education. (2011). Miller Function & Participation Scales. Retrieved from