2IntroductionCITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.CITES aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants do not threaten their survival.
3Unit Objectives Explain the scope and purpose of CITES Know the composition of the 3 CITES AppendicesIllustrate how CITES regulates tradeDiscuss the role of Customs and border control in implementing CITES
4Unit Outline Introduction Scope and Intention of CITES THE 3 CITES AppendicesRegulating Trade under CITESRole of Customs & Border ControlConclusion
5CITES has been in operation for over 35 years How CITES worksCITES is the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and FloraCITES was signed on 3 March 1973, and entered into force on 1 July 1975CITES has been in operation for over 35 years
6Status of Ratification in the Caribbean All CARIFORUM States are listed as parties to CITES except for Haiti.**Refer to Caribbean MEAs Ratification Status fact sheet.
7How CITES worksCITES is an international convention that combines wildlife and trade themes with a legally binding instrument for achieving conservation and sustainable use objectives
8How CITES worksThe purpose of CITES is to ensure that wild fauna and flora in international trade are not exploited unsustainably
9How CITES worksThe Convention establishes an international legal framework together with common procedural mechanisms for the prevention of international commercial trade in endangered species, and for an effective regulation of international trade in others
10How CITES worksThis framework and common procedural mechanism is now used by 175 countries to regulate and monitor international trade in wild resources
11How CITES worksSpecies subject to CITES regulation are divided amongst three AppendicesIIIIII
12How CITES works Appendix I Species threatened with extinction International (commercial) trade is generally prohibitedAlmost 530 animal species and some 300 plant species
13How CITES works Appendix II Species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but for which trade must be controlled to avoid their becoming threatenedSpecies that resemble species already included in Appendix I or IIInternational trade is permitted but regulatedMore than 4,400 animal species and more than 28,000 plant species
14How CITES works Appendix III Species for which a country is asking Parties to help with its protectionInternational trade is permitted but regulated (less restrictive than Appendix II)Some 255 animal species and 7 plant species
18Flora - Caribbean Examples cactusOrchidsCacti – Appendix I and IIOrchids – Appendix IIMahogany – Appendix IITree Fern – Appendix IISt.Lucia Tree FernCuban Mahogany
19Regulating Trade under CITES CITES regulates the export, re-export and import of live and dead animals and plants and their parts and derivatives (for listed species only) through a system of permits and certificates These permits or certificates may only be issued if certain conditions are met and which must be presented when leaving or entering a country For Appendix I and II-listed species, the most important condition is that international trade must not be detrimental to their survival in the wild
20CITES AuthoritiesAll countries that join the Convention must adopt legislation for its implementation The role and power of authorities responsible for implementation of CITES is defined in National Legislation The Management Authority in your country should clarify which legislation applies Other types of legislation (e.g. veterinary or phyto-sanitary certificates, import-export licenses) also apply to CITES specimens and may in certain cases even be more effective when dealing with illegal shipments
21CITES AuthoritiesManagement Authority - A national management authority designated to implement the Convention.Scientific Authority-A national scientific authority designated to advise the Management Authority.Enforcement Authority –An agency designated with responsibility for enforcing the provisions of the Convention
22Common Procedural Mechanisms Similar authoritiesSimilar requirementsSimilar proceduresCOMMON PROCEDURAL MECHANISMSSimilar documentsSimilar rules and regulations
23Role of Customs & Border Control No role is specified for Customs in the Text of the Convention However, the Convention specifies that trade requires the presentation of valid permits or certificates, which usually involves Customs verification
24Role of Customs check the validity of the documents submitted Customs and Border Control officials:check the validity of the documents submittedensure that they correspond to the actual goodscombat fraud and check that prohibition and restriction measures are complied withcollect duties and taxesconduct investigations at traders’ premisescarry out checks on the transport of goods within the country
25Role of CustomsA Customs officer is usually the first (and sometimes the only) level of inspection of shipments of CITES specimensThis places a great burden on Customs to verify that trade is in accordance with CITES, detect fraud and illegal trade where it occurs, and inform the Management Authority
26Class ExerciseWhat are the challenges for Customs of administering CITES within the region given the diversity in topography and culture of CARIFORUM states Participants will discuss in small groups and consider the situation in countries with land borders as well as island states
27Caribbean Perspective Import Control by Customs involves inspection of CITES documentation and ensuring phyto-sanitary or veterinary certification.Apart from ensuring compliance with the provisions of CITES there is also the need to prevent the introduction of Invasive Alien Species ( IAS)
28Caribbean Perspective Without compromising the import controls an equal emphasis should be on export control as there is also a risk of illegal trade in flora and fauna specimen being taken out of the countries of the region.Probable export risk situations include:Out going tourists ( cruise and air passengers)Crew members ( regular calls by tourist ships)Yachts and pleasure craft ( coastal moorings)Unmonitored land borders
29CITES Complexity More than 32,000 species are listed in the Appendices CITES comprises 25 Articles, plus Resolutions and DecisionsNational legislation is used to implement CITES, and it can have stricter measuresMuch additional information can be found in official Notifications, reports and proposalsThe evolving nature of CITES means changes in coverage, rules and procedures from year to yearCITES is usually not the only task of Management and Scientific AuthoritiesFor Customs, CITES is but one of many responsibilities
30…collaboration is necessary In carrying out their work, CITES authorities and Customs authorities are not aloneExperts may assist in the identification of specimensThe CITES Secretariat and various CITES Management Authorities produce manuals on how to identify speciesCustoms laboratories or other scientific institutions may analyze certain products to determine whether they contain CITES specimensCITES authorities can work together to solve the problem of what to do with seized specimensTraining materials and courses are available, as well as other resources
31…collaboration is necessary Inter-agency collaboration and cooperation at the national level are essentialCITES AuthoritiesCustomsPoliceJudiciaryResource sectorsNational-level partnerships are also very important for the effectiveimplementation of the Convention, in particular those betweenimplementing agencies. Such partnerships include closecommunication and collaboration between CITES Authorities(between Management Authorities, betweenScientific Authorities, and between Management andScientific Authorities); and between CITES Authorities andCustoms, police and the judiciary; and between CITESAuthorities and other branches of Government(such as resource sectors – e.g. fisheries and forestry).Partnerships between CITES Authorities and theprivate sector can also be very important in securingcompliance with the Convention.
32SummaryCITES is an international agreement between governments that ensures that no species of wild fauna or flora is unsustainably exploited for international tradeThe Convention establishes the international legal framework and common procedural mechanisms for the prevention of international trade in endangered species, and for an effective regulation of international trade in others
33SummaryCITES regulates international trade in specimens of species of wild fauna and flora listed in its Appendices on the basis of a system of permits and certificates which are issued only when certain conditions are met, and which must be presented when leaving AND entering a countryFor Appendix-I listed species, international trade is generally prohibited, and for Appendix-II and –III listed species, international trade is permitted but regulatedInter-agency collaboration is essential for the effective implementation of CITES
34Conclusion Answer any questions and discuss any areas of doubt Review Unit ObjectivesLink to next Unit on Practical Aspects of MEA Enforcement.