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Appendix: Making & Using Graphs Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope.

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Presentation on theme: "Appendix: Making & Using Graphs Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope."— Presentation transcript:

1 Appendix: Making & Using Graphs Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope Why bother? Graphs & Data Graphs & Models Slope

2 Why bother? visual relationship between to variables analyze & understand -- information -- ideas visual relationship between to variables analyze & understand -- information -- ideas

3 “A picture is worth a thousand words” corny, but true a graph conveys info more clearly & quickly than words “A picture is worth a thousand words” corny, but true a graph conveys info more clearly & quickly than words

4 Graphs & Data scatter diagram -- graph x value that corresponds to y value -- relationship between x and y -- do they move in same direction? -- opposite direction? -- varied directions? scatter diagram -- graph x value that corresponds to y value -- relationship between x and y -- do they move in same direction? -- opposite direction? -- varied directions?

5 example: consumption & income each point = 1 year as income rises, so does consumption

6 time-series graph -- measures the behavior of a variable over time -- x axis = time -- y axis = variable -- Is variable high or low? rising or falling? stable or volatile?

7 example: price of coffee price is volatile no long-term trend of rising or falling price ranged between $1-$5 per lb.

8 cross-section graph -- looks at value of one variable for different groups, at single point in time -- compare outcomes for different groups

9 example: income per person compare income across cities in 1995

10 Graphs & Economic Models how do variables move together? positive relationship -- variables move in same direction negative (inverse) relationship -- variables move in opposite direction how do variables move together? positive relationship -- variables move in same direction negative (inverse) relationship -- variables move in opposite direction

11 price quantity demanded demand Negative relationship Here, linear relationship

12 Y X Negative relationship but not linear

13 price quantity supplied supply positive relationship Here, linear relationship

14 Positive relationship but not a linear relationship X Y

15 your grade in eco 101 price of tea in China No relationship Your grade is independent of price of tea in China

16 Changing relationship Car mileage at first rises, then falls as speed rises speed (mph) Car mileage (mpg)

17 SlopeSlope quantifies relationship between two variables

18 line -- slope is constant nonlinear -- slope changes line -- slope is constant nonlinear -- slope changes

19 example 1: Demand for pizza price quantity of pizza demanded demand 2550 $5 $10

20 price quantity of pizza demanded demand 2550 $5 $10 x1 = 25, y1 = 10 x2 = 50, y2 = 5 change in x = 25 change in y = -5

21 slope < 0 negative relationship

22 example 2: nonlinear Y X A B C

23 Y X A B C slope from A to B

24 Y X A B C slope from B to C slope is flatter

25 Using graphs model markets production & costs competitive and monopoly firms explain wage behavior model markets production & costs competitive and monopoly firms explain wage behavior

26 more practice Link to graph tutorial at the bottom of the course Web page.


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