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© 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 1 Appendix 3 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 1 Appendix 3 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 1 Appendix 3 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

2 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 2 Learning Objectives 13.Describe the concepts and principles underlying the object-oriented approach to analysis and design.  Define the terms concisely: event, state transition, and sequence diagram.  Describe the concepts and principles underlying the object-oriented approach.  Describe the activities in the different phases of the object-oriented development life cycle.

3 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 3  Compare object-oriented modeling with traditional systems development approaches.  Model real-world applications using UML diagrams. Learning Objectives

4 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 4 The Object-Oriented Development Life Cycle Process of progressively developing representation of a system component (or object) through the phases of analysis, design, and implementation. The model is abstract in the early stages. As the model evolves, it becomes more and more detailed.

5 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 5 Object oriented cycle is like an onion, evolving from abstract to detailed, from external qualities to system architecture and algorithms.

6 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 6 Object-Oriented Deliverables and Outcomes 1.The ability to tackle more challenging problem domains. 2.Improved communication among users, analysts, designers, and programmers. 3.Increased consistency among analysis, design, and programming activities. 4.Explicit representation of commonality among system components. 5.Robust systems. 6.Reusability of analysis, design, and programming results. 7.Increased consistency among the models developed during object-oriented analysis, design, and programming.

7 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 7 The Unified Modeling Language (UML) A notation that allows the modeler to specify, visualize, and construct the artifacts of software systems, as well as business models. Techniques and notations:  Use cases  Class diagrams  State diagrams  Sequence diagrams  Activity diagrams

8 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 8 Use Cases Revisited A depiction of a system’s behavior or functionality under various conditions as the system responds to requests from users. Full functioning for a specific business purpose. See Chapter 7.

9 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 9

10 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 10 Class Diagrams Revisited Features:  Objects and classes  Encapsulation of attributes and operations  Polymorphism  Inheritance  Aggregation and composition See Chapter 9.

11 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 11

12 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 12 Dynamic Modeling Representation of activities that occur throughout the lifetime of a system. Types of UML dynamic models  State diagram: state changes within an object.  Sequence diagram: time-sequenced interactions between objects.  Activity diagram: flow of control between activities within an object.

13 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 13 State Diagrams State  A condition during the life of an object during which it satisfies some conditions, performs some actions or waits for some events.  Shown as a rectangle with rounded corners. State Transition  The changes in the attribute of an object or in the links an object has with other objects.  Shown as a solid arrow.  Diagrammed with a guard condition and action. Event  Something that takes place at a certain point in time, triggering a state transition.

14 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 14 State diagram: a model of the states of a single object and the events that cause the object to change from one state to another. Guard condition Action A transition is labeled with a guard condition and/or an action, separated with a forward slash /

15 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 15 Diagramming Substates and Decomposing States A state can be expanded into substates using nested state diagrams, similar to expansion of processes in different levels of DFDs.

16 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 16 Diagramming Substates and Decomposing States (cont.) An event can be expanded into using nested state diagrams, and may involve substates and subtransitions and events.

17 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 17 Dynamic Modeling: Sequence Diagrams A depiction of the interaction among objects during certain periods of time. Elements of a sequence diagram:  Objects: represented by boxes at top of diagram.  Lifeline: the time during which an object exists.  Activation: the time period during which an object performs an operation.  Messages: means by which objects communicate with each other.

18 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 18 Types of Messages in Sequence Diagrams Synchronous message  The caller must wait for the receiving object to finish executing the called operation before it can resume execution itself. Asynchronous message  The caller can resume execution right after sending the message, without waiting for the receiver to complete. Simple message  A message that transfers control from the sender to the recipient without describing the details of the communication

19 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 19 time lifeline activation message object

20 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 20 Process Modeling: Activity Diagrams Shows the conditional logic for the sequence of system activities needed to accomplish a business process Clearly shows parallel and alternative behaviors Can be used to show the logic of a use case

21 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 21 Elements of Activity Diagrams Activity: a behavior that an object carries out while in a particular state. Transition: a movement from one activity or state to another. Branch: a diamond symbol containing a condition whose results provide transitions to different paths of activities. Synchronization bar: horizontal or vertical bars denoting parallel or concurrent paths of activities.  Fork: the beginning of parallel activities.  Join: the end of parallel activities. Swimlanes: columns representing different organizational units of the system.

22 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 22 swimlane activity branch synchronization bar

23 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 23 Analysis Versus Design Start with existing set of analysis model. Progressively add technical details. Design model must be more detailed than analysis model. Component Diagram  A diagram that shows the software components or modules and their dependencies. Deployment Diagram  A diagram that shows how the software components, process and objects are deployed into the physical architecture of the system.

24 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 24

25 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 25 Summary In this chapter you learned how to: 13. Describe the concepts and principles underlying the object-oriented approach to analysis and design.  Define the terms concisely: event, state transition, and sequence diagram.  Describe the concepts and principles underlying the object-oriented approach.  Describe the activities in the different phases of the object-oriented development life cycle.

26 © 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 9 Slide 26  Compare object-oriented modeling with traditional systems development approaches.  Model real-world applications using UML diagrams. Summary


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