Presentation on theme: "CHINESE MEDICINE & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CURRENT STATE & PERSPECTIVES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES."— Presentation transcript:
CHINESE MEDICINE & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CURRENT STATE & PERSPECTIVES FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES
Tiger 5100 – 7500 individuals (5 subspecies) remaining in the wild. 100 000 in the early XXth century. 3 subspecies (Bali, Caspian Sea, Javan) lost in the last 60 years. 6 -11kg of dry bone/1tiger. In the early 90’s the average import of tiger bones into some countries could exceed 1.5t/year. Classified as Endangered in the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; Listed in Appendix I of CITES. Protected and trade illegal in many countries. Since the middle of the 90’s, governements and TM world, in partnership with NGO’s, became aware of tiger plight, and efforts have been made. (Panthera tigris) Hu Gu
Rhinos Africa : 11300 White Rhinos et 3600 Black rhinos (100 000 black rhinos in the 60’s). Asia : Less than 3000 individuals for the 3 asiatic species together. As for the Tiger, progresses have been made since the 90’s. Black, Javan and Sumatran Rhinos are classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List; the Indian Rhino is Endangered and the white one, Near Threatened. All Rhinos are in Appendix I of CITES (except south african white rhinos in Appendix II). Protected and trade illegal in many countries. Xi Jiao Rhinoceros
Musk Deer All species listed in Appendix II of CITES, except the Siberian Musk Deer, in Appendix I and classified as Vulnerable in the 2006 IUCN Red List. Protected in most of the concerned countries. Global population estimation : 400 000 - 800 000 individuals, divided in at least 4 species. 120-200 deer hunted for 1 kg of musk. Annual demand for musk in China alone : 500 – 1000 kg ; Farming production : about 50kg/ year. Russian populations have fallen by around 50% in the last 10 years. Strong increasing of demand and supply. (Moschus spp.) She Xiang
Asiatic Black Bear 15 000 individuals in China. Half living in captivity. Farming in Vietnam and Korea. Protected species and bile trade is illegal in some countries. Classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List, and in Appendix I of CITES. Deplorable conditions of detention, painfull traitement and bile extraction, poaching of wild individuals. Strong increasing of demand and supply. Worlwide bile consumption : 4-5 t / year (500 kg, 25 years ago). (Ursus thibetanus) Xiong Dan
Snow Leopard Leopard products are used as substitute to tiger products. 4000 – 7000 individuals remaining in 12 countries. Extinct in several areas where it formerly could be found. Strong increasing of demand and supply (mostly since the ban on tiger products). Classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List; listed in Appendix I of CITES. (Uncia uncia) Bao Gu
Sa ï ga Antilope Extinct in China in the 40’s. Population have fallen by around 80-90% in the last 10 years. In some population, proportion of male is only 1% ( normal ratio : 1:4) This leads to a reproductive collapse. Classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN Red List and listed in Appendix II of Cites. (Saïga tatarica) Chinese import from 1990 to 1992 represent more than 440 000 individuals (about 1/3 of the population at that time). Ling Yang Jiao
Seahorses All Seahorses species with sufficient datas are at least classified as Vulnerable and listed in Appendix II of Cites. Trade in Seahorses boomed in the 80’s. Consumption increases by between 8 and 10 % / year. Populations from several coutries declined by 50 % between 1990 and 1995; South-eastern populations like Phillipines population have slumped by 70% between 1985 et 1995. Global consumption : at least 25 million individuals/year (70t) in the 2000’s. Because of high demand and decreasing catches, demand far exceeds supplies. (Hippocampus spp.) Hai Ma
Plants More than 70% of plants collection are made in natural environment. Several species are on the verge of extinction. Unsustainable collection of wild ginseng (Ye Shan Shen). US exports 60t/year of American Ginseng (Xi Yang Shen). Russian and american ginseng are listed in Appendix II of CITES. Licorice root (Gan Cao, Glycyrrhyza sp.) : threaned by unsustainable collection. Growth area deacreased from 50000miles² to 19000miles². Costus root (Mu Xiang, Saussurea lappa) is listed in Appendix I of CITES.
From : Henry, L.A. 2004. A Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Markets in San Francisco and New York City. TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: World Wildlife Fund.
SOLUTIONS (I) Boycott of endangered species Better prevention of diseases Promote other therapeutic methods of TCM Research for development of substitutes coming from global pharmacopoea
SOLUTIONS (II) Increased repression of illegal trade, stronger involvment of governments. Obligation for sensitive products to be available only on prescription. Information to the general public and professionals about the real usefulness of endangered species-based products and their substitutes.
Phone: 011 33 689 033 669 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@aol.com Get involved! Learning and Acting for the Survival of Threatened Plants and Animals used in Traditional Healthcare Last Path
www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.pdf Henry, L.A. 2004. A Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Markets in San Francisco and New York City. TRAFFIC North America. Washington D.C.: World Wildlife Fund. (data + tables in diapo 6) Fratkin, J.P. (2001). Chinese Herbal Patent Medicines, Appendix 6 « reference notes concerning the use of endangered animals, heavy metals and chemical contaminants » pp.1125-1127. Sources (II)
Sources (III) Asiatic Black Bear : Courrier International n°787 « En Asie du Sud-Est les ours se font de la bile », Janet Raloff from Science News; « IFAW en Action, Sauver les ours à collier d’une vie de torture », 2001. www.terrywhittaker.com/galleries/03bearfarming/03bearfarming.htm (pictures) www.terrywhittaker.com/galleries/03bearfarming/03bearfarming.htm Musk Deer : Homes, V. (1999). On the Scent: Conserving Musk Deer – The Uses of Musk and Europe’s Role in its Trade. TRAFFIC Europe. http://www.wwf-uk.org/News/n_0000001264.asphttp://www.wwf-uk.org/News/n_0000001264.asp (right picture); http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/387033.stm (left picture). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/387033.stm Rhinos : http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm (left picture: Esmond Bradley Martin ); http://www.rhino-irf.org;http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm http://www.rhino-irf.org Tiger : http://www.worldwildlife.org/tigers; http://www.traffic.org/factfile/factfile_substitutes.html; http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm (left picture: WWF-Canon / Edward Parker); http://www.savethetigerfund.org/trouble/ConservationOrganizations/WWF/wwfcan.htm; L’Expansion n° 602 juillet-aout 1999 « L’Or Sauvage, la guerre économique autour de la protection des animaux »;http://www.worldwildlife.org/tigers http://www.traffic.org/factfile/factfile_substitutes.html http://www.worldwildlife.org/trade/tcm.cfm http://www.savethetigerfund.org/trouble/ConservationOrganizations/WWF/wwfcan.htm