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© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2 Automated Tools for Systems Development Modern Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-2 Learning Objectives Identify the tradeoffs when using CASE to support system development activities. Describe organizational forces for and against CASE. Describe the role of CASE tools in SDLC. List and describe CASE components. Describe upper CASE, lower CASE, cross- life-cycle CASE, and CASE repository.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-3 What is CASE? Computer-aided Software Engineering Software tools that provide automated support for some portions of the system development process Any type of tool that helps to automate any activity within the systems development process Used to support or automate activities throughout the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Increase productivity Improve overall quality of systems
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-4 Purpose of CASE is to facilitate a single design philosophy within an organization.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-5 Organizational Objectives of CASE Improve quality of systems developed Increase speed of development and design Ease and improve testing process through automated checking Improve integration of development activities via common methodologies Improve quality and completeness of documentation Help standardize the development process Improve project management Simplify program maintenance Promote reusability Improve software portability
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-6 Impediments to Widespread CASE Deployment Cost Between $5,000 and $15,000 per year to provide CASE tools to one systems analyst Return on Investment Biggest benefits of CASE come in late stages of SDLC – early stages of project may take more time! Productivity Bottlenecks Inability of some tools to share information Difficulty in providing tools for all stages of SDLC Organizations without a widely used methodology or one that is not compatible with CASE tool
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-7 The Outlook for CASE Functionality is increasing Cost is decreasing Extend life of existing systems Reverse Engineering Tools Automated tools that read program source code as input and create graphical and textual representations of program design-level information Reengineering Tools Automated software that reads program source code, analyzes it and automatically or interactively alters an existing system to improve quality and/or performance
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-8
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-9 Categories of CASE Upper CASE: support information planning, project identification and selection, project initiation and planning, analysis and design Lower CASE: support the implementation and maintenance phases of the systems development life cycle Cross life-cycle CASE: support activities that occur across multiple phases of the systems development life cycle
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-10 Impact of CASE on Individuals Systems analysts: automate routine tasks; focus on communications skills Programmers: piece together objects created by code generators; maintenance of designs Users: increased participation via upper CASE tools Top managers: CASE-based planning assists with strategy development Functional managers: CASE helps reengineer business processes IS managers: CASE gives better control over IS development project and resources
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-11 Forces For and Against CASE Adoption Driving forces: Short development time Improved productivity Improved system quality Improved worker skills Improved portability Improved management Resisting forces: High purchase cost High training cost Low organizational confidence in IS department (time & budget) Lack of standards Perceived threat to job security
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-12 Types of CASE Tools Diagramming tools Computer display and report generators Analysis tools - check for incomplete, inconsistent or incorrect specifications in diagrams, forms, reports Central repository - enables integrated storage of specifications, diagrams, reports and project management information Documentation generators -- technical and user documentation in standard formats Code generators - produce code from design documents, diagrams, forms and reports
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-13
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-14 CASE versus Traditional Systems Development Traditional approach does not offer support for integration of specification documents. Often, documentation is done after coding is completed in traditional systems development. Traditional approach often leads to out- of-date documentation.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-15 CASE versus Traditional Systems Development (cont.) Traditional Systems Development: Emphasis on coding and testing Paper-based specifications Manual coding of programs Manual documenting Intensive software testing Maintain code and documentation CASE-Based Systems Development: Emphasis on analysis and design Rapid interactive prototyping Automated code generation Automated documentation generation Automated design checking Maintain design specifications – “flow”
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-16 CASE Diagramming Tools Enable representation of a system and components visually Effective for representing process flows, data structures and program structures Several types of diagrams, including: Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) Class Diagrams Entity-Relationship Diagrams
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-17
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-18 CASE Form and Report Generator Tools CASE tools that support the creation of system forms and reports in order to prototype how systems will look and feel to users Two Purposes: Create, modify, and test prototypes of computer display forms and reports Identify data items to display or collect for each form or report
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-19
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-20 CASE Analysis Tools Enable automatic checking for incomplete, inconsistent, or incorrect specifications in diagrams, forms and reports. Types of analyses vary depending on the organization’s development methodology and features of CASE environment.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-21 Integrated CASE (I-CASE) Tools Automated systems development environment that provides numerous tools to create diagrams, forms and reports Provides analysis, reporting and code generation facilities Seamlessly shares and integrates data across and between tools Includes a central CASE Repository to store information to share between tools
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-22 The CASE repository contains complete information needed to create, modify and evolve a software system from project initiation and planning to code generation and maintenance.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-23 Use of CASE Repository CASE Repository and the SDLC Project initiation and planning problem domain, project resources, history and organizational context Analysis and design phases graphical diagrams and prototype forms and reports Repository data used to generate code and documentation Cross-referencing Enables one description of a data item to be stored and accessed by all individuals so that a single definition for a data item is established and used Avoids duplications; helps with updating - field length change
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-24 Use of CASE Repository Assistance with project management tasks Aids in software reusability The ability to design software modules in a manner so that they can be used again and again in different systems without significant modification
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-25
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-26 Other CASE Tools CASE Documentation Generator Tools Simplifies production of technical and user documentation Master templates to verify that documentation conforms to all stages of SDLC CASE Code Generation Tools Automatic generation of program and database definition code directly from the design documents, diagrams, forms and reports
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 2-27 Summary In this chapter you learned how to: Identify the tradeoffs when using CASE to support system development activities. Describe organizational forces for and against CASE. Describe the role of CASE tools in SDLC. List and describe CASE components. Describe upper CASE, lower CASE, cross- life-cycle CASE, and CASE repository.
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