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1 APPENDIX A: TSP SOLVER USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

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2 The outline of the GA for TSP The algorithm consists of the following steps: Initialization: Generation of M individuals randomly. Natural Selection: Eliminate p 1 % individuals. The population decreases by M.p 1 /100. Multiplication: Choose M.p 1 /100 pairs of individuals randomly and produce an offspring from each pair of individuals (by crossover). The population reverts to the initial population M. Mutation by 2-opt: choose p 2 % of individuals randomly and improve them by the 2-opt method. The elite individual (the individual with the best fitness value in the population) is always chosen. If the individual is already improved, do nothing.

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3 Representation We use the path representation for solution coding. EX: the chromosome g = (D, H, B, A, C, F, G, E) means that the salesperson visits D, H, B, A,…E successively, and returns to town D.

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4 Mutation by 2-opt The 2-opt is one of the most well-known local search operator (move operator) among TSP solving algorithms. It improves the tour edge by edge and reverses the order of the subtour. When we apply the 2-opt mutation to a solution, the solution may fall into a local mimimum.

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6 Crossover operator Greedy Subtour Crossover (GSX). It acquires the longest possible sequence of parents’ subtours. Using GSX, the solution can pop up from local minima effectively.

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7 Greedy Subtour Crossover Inputs: Chromosomes g a = (D, H, B, A, C, F, G, E) and g b = (B, C, D, G, H, F, E, A). Outputs: The offspring g = (H, B, A, C, D, G, F, E)

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8 procedure crossover(g a, g b ){ fa true fb true choose town t randomly choose x, where a x = t choose y, where b y = t g t do { x x -1 (mod n), y y + 1 (mod n). if f a = true then { if a x g then g a x.g else f a false } if f b = true then { if b x g then g g.b y else f b false } } while f a = true or f b = true if |g| < g a | then { add the rest of towns to g in the random order } return g } Algorithm: Greedy Subtour Crossover Inputs: Chromosomes g a = (a 0, a 1, …, a n- 1 ) and g b = (b 0, b 1,…, b n-1 ). Outputs: The offspring chromosome g.

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9 Example: Suppose that parent chromosomes g a = (D, H, B, A, C, F, G, E) and g b = (B, C, D, G, H, F, E, A). First, choose one town at random, say, town C is chosen. Then x = 4 and y =1. Now the child is (C). Next, pick up towns from the parents alternately. Begin with a 3 (A) and next is b 2 (D). The child becomes g = (A, C, D). In the same way, add a 2 (B), b 3 (G), a 1 (H), and the child becomes g = (H,B,A,C,D,G). Now the next town is b 4 = H and H has already appeared in the child, so we can’t add any more towns from parent g b. Now, we add towns from parent g a. The next town is a 0 = D, but D has already used. Thus, we can’t add towns from parent g a, either. Then we add the rest of the towns, i.e., E and F, to the child in the random order. Finally the child is g = (H,B,A,C,D,G,F,E).

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10 Survivor Selection Eliminate R = M.p 1 /100. We eliminate similar individuals to maintain the diversity in order to avoid immature convergence. First, sort the individuals in fitness-value order. Compare the fitness value of adjoining individuals. If the difference is less than , eliminate preceding individual while the number of eliminated individuals (r) is less than R. Next, if r < R, eliminate R - r individuals in the order of lowest fitness value.

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11 Other parameters Test data: TSPLIB gr96.data (666 cities) Population size: 200 maximum number of generations: 300 p 1 = 30% p 2 = 20% produces the minimum solution Conclusion: The solver brings out good solution very fast since GA here utilizes heuristic search (2-opt) in genetic operators. It is a hybrid algorithm.

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12 Reference H. Sengoku, I. Yoshihara, “A Fast TSP Solver Using GA on Java”, 1997.

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