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Appendix 11.A Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-2 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity Some Keynesians think the nonneutrality of money is because of nominal-wage rigidity, not nominal-price rigidity –Nominal wages could be rigid because of long- term contracts between firms and unions –With nominal-wage rigidity, the short-run aggregate supply curve slopes upward instead of being horizontal –Even so, the main results of the Keynesian model still hold
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-3 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity The short-run aggregate supply curve with labor contracts –U.S. labor contracts usually specify employment conditions and the nominal wage rate for three years –Employers decide on workers' hours and must pay them the contracted nominal wage –The result is an upward-sloping short-run aggregate supply curve As the price level rises, the real wage declines, since the nominal wage is fixed As the real wage declines, firms hire more workers and thus increase output
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-4 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –Money isn't neutral in this model, because as the money supply increases, the AD curve shifts along the fixed (upward-sloping) SRAS curve (Fig. 11.A.1) –As a result, output and the price level increase –Over time, workers will negotiate higher nominal wages and the SRAS curve will shift left to restore general equilibrium –Thus money is nonneutral in the short run but neutral in the long run
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-5 Figure 11.A.1 Monetary nonneutrality with long-term contracts
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-6 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –There are several objections to this theory Less than one-sixth of the U.S. labor force is unionized and covered by long-term wage contracts; however, some nonunion workers get wages similar to those in union contracts, and other workers may have implicit contracts that act like long-term contracts
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education11A-7 Appendix 11.A: Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity Nonneutrality of money –There are several objections to this theory (cont.) Some labor contracts are indexed to inflation, so the real wage is fixed, not the nominal wage; however, most contracts aren't completely indexed The theory predicts that real wages will be countercyclical, but in fact they are procyclical; however, if there are both aggregate supply shocks and aggregate demand shocks, real wages may turn out on average to be procyclical, but could still be countercyclical for demand shocks
© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Appendix 11.A Labor Contracts and Nominal-Wage Rigidity.
Supplemental Slides From Class Aggregate Supply Chapter 13-7 th and 14-8 th edition.
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Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Aggregate Demand Aggregate demand for current output, Y d, is: Y d = C + I + G + NX. The AD curve slopes downward.
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Copyright © 2016 Pearson Canada Inc.
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© 2008 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 11-1 Chapter Outline Real-Wage Rigidity Price Stickiness Monetary and Fiscal Policy in the Keynesian.
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