email@example.com 4 Organization Schemes Exact Everything has a place. Easy to create and maintain. Great for known-item searches. e.g., white pages, geography, chronology Ambiguous Fuzzy and full of overlap. Hard to create and maintain. Great for subject searches, associative learning. e.g., yellow pages, topic, audience
7 “Consider for example the proceedings we call games. I mean board games, card games, ball games, Olympic games, and so on. What is common to them all?” Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1945 Philosophical Investigations Games Soccer Chess Solitaire Quake Movies Investing Horoscopes Personals
firstname.lastname@example.org 9 Family Resemblances
email@example.com 10 green squares orange circles blue triangles olive blocks solid boxes glass marbles small spheres hollow shapes big mountains Most categorization is automatic and unconscious. When we define categories, we choose which attributes or properties to surface.
firstname.lastname@example.org 11 “Categorization is not a matter to be taken lightly. There is nothing more basic than categorization to our thought, perception, action, and speech.” George Lakoff Professor, Cognitive Linguistics UC Berkeley
email@example.com 12 Prototype Theory Prototype-based categories defined by fuzzy cognitive models rather than objective rules. Family Resemblances Members may be related without all members sharing any common property. Centrality Some members may be better examples Membership Gradience Some categories have degrees of membership and no clear boundaries Basic Level Primacy A psychologically basic (folk- generic) level in the hierarchy. Optimal for learning, recognition, memory, knowledge organization.
firstname.lastname@example.org 13 Robin Ostrich Bat Core Peripheral External
email@example.com 14 Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Cetacea Family Delphinidae Genus Tursiops Species Truncatus Suborder Odontoceti Subphylum Vertebrata Animal Mammal Whales, Dolphins Dolphins, Killer Whales Bottlenose Dolphin Toothed Whales Vertebrate Grey Dolphin Black Dolphin Bottlenose Porpoise Cowfish Bottle-Nosed Dolphin Atlantic Bottlenose Pacific Bottlenose Basic Level
firstname.lastname@example.org 15 Kingdom Electronics Phylum Handhelds & PDAs Family Sony Genus Clie Species PEG-NZ90 Class Palm Operating Systems Sony Clie PEG-NZ90 Handheld Electronics > Audio & Video Electronics > Brands > Sony Electronics > Camera & Photo Electronics > Computers Gifts > Over $100 Basic Level
email@example.com 18 Descriptive Name A name which describes a product, service, or company. Descriptive names, such as Workgroup Server and Pacific Gas and Electric, have content, but often are not protectable and typically are not favored by trademark attorneys. Proprietary Name A protectable name which one is able to own and trademark, as opposed to a descriptive name, which is not protectable or ownable. See Brand Name. Suggestive Name A name built on or utilizing words or word parts which suggest or refer to the goods or services, but do not literally describe them. Oracle and Safeway are suggestive. Suggestive names are often protectable (unlike descriptive names), but may be weaker as trademarks than coined/fanciful or arbitrary names. Psycholinguistics The study of how language is understood and interpreted and how and why the individual responds to discrete aspects of language.
firstname.lastname@example.org 19 Navigation Support task flow Provide context and flexibility Avoid drowning content
email@example.com 20 Global Local Contextual
firstname.lastname@example.org 21 Global Local Contextual Breadcrumb
email@example.com 25 Navigation QuestionMark Up on the Paper What is this page about?Draw a rectangle around the title of the page or write it on the paper yourself What site is this?Circle the site name, or write it on the paper yourself What are the major sections of this site? Label with X What major section is this page in? Draw a triangle around the X What is "up" 1 level from here?Label with U How do I get to the home page of this site? Label with H How do I get to the top of this section of the site? Label with T What does each group of links represent? Circle the major groups of links and label. D: More details, sub-pages of this one N: Nearby pages, within same section as this page S: Pages on same site, but not as near O: Off-site pages How might you get to this page from the site home page? Write the set of selections as: Choice 1 > Choice 2 >.... Connect the visual elements on the page that tell you this. Navigation Stress Test by Keith Instone > http://keith.instone.org/navstress/http://keith.instone.org/navstress/
firstname.lastname@example.org 26 Nike.com > North America > USA > NikeRunning.com > Gear > Footwear > Women’s > Trail > Air Trail Pegasus
email@example.com 27 Home Camp/Hike Water Treatment Water Purifiers
firstname.lastname@example.org 32 The Right NumberThe Right Number by Scott McCloud
email@example.com 33 Search “…studies show that search is still the primary usability problem in web site design.” Vividence Research: Common Usability Problems 1.Poorly organized search results 2.Poor information architecture Source: Flexible Search and Navigation using Faceted Metadata (UC Berkeley SIMS)
firstname.lastname@example.org 34 “Most of the complaints we get are due to the way users search; they use the wrong keywords.” Manufacturing Manager in Must Search Stink? by Forrester Research
email@example.com 37 “I really do see the future in terms of categories and clicking. The more I watch what's happening with the evolution of web sites, the more I believe that Search is essentially an experiment that has failed.” Jared Spool http://www.info-arch.org/lists/sigia-l/0302/0297.html
firstname.lastname@example.org 38 Search Systems http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/search.html
email@example.com 47 Where To Find Me Peter Morville firstname.lastname@example.org Semantic Studios http://semanticstudios.com/ Asilomar Institute for Information Architecture http://aifia.org/ Findability http://findability.org/