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VIRTUAL ADVERTISING IN SPORTS EVENTS: DOES IT REALLY WORK? Lisa Becharas Katie Baumgardner Erin Brown Quincy Henderson Dani Kabbes Casey Richards.

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Presentation on theme: "VIRTUAL ADVERTISING IN SPORTS EVENTS: DOES IT REALLY WORK? Lisa Becharas Katie Baumgardner Erin Brown Quincy Henderson Dani Kabbes Casey Richards."— Presentation transcript:

1 VIRTUAL ADVERTISING IN SPORTS EVENTS: DOES IT REALLY WORK? Lisa Becharas Katie Baumgardner Erin Brown Quincy Henderson Dani Kabbes Casey Richards

2 Part 1: Article Overview  Purpose  They wanted to test whether participants could recognize virtual advertising  Whether or not exposure time, exposure frequency, and prior brand awareness have a positive impact on the recall of brands advertising  They were testing if attitude towards advertising in general is positively correlated with the attitude towards virtual advertising  Primary relationship: virtual advertising and its recognition, recall of brands, and attitude

3 Hypotheses  “Virtual advertising is recognized by a majority of television viewers.”  “Exposure time, exposure frequency and prior brand awareness have a positive impact on the recall of the brands advertised.”  “Attitude towards advertising in general is positively correlated with attitude towards virtual advertising.”

4 Methods  Participants  142 German university students  Interest in Soccer Broadcasts High: 34.5% Medium: 23.9% Low: 40.1%  Gender Male: 90.8% Female: 9.2%

5 Methods  The students were tested prior to the study (pre-test) on assessing prior brand awareness  The students were shown an 18-minute video clip from a televised soccer match  Five brands/organizations were advertised during the match

6 Methods  The students were interviewed (post-test) regarding effectiveness of virtual advertising  Compared students’ attitudes towards advertising in general and their attitudes towards virtual advertising  The participants were given a questionnaire after the video  Aided recall: given brands and asked if they saw them  Unaided: Tell me what you saw during the video

7 Results  77.5 % of participants recognized that virtual advertising had been used  92.7 % assigned the virtual advertising correctly (knew what it was)

8 Results  Recall level was very high in both aided and unaided questionnaires  Duration of exposure does not play an essential role, whereas the frequency of exposure has a significant influence on the effectiveness of advertising  Attitudes towards advertising were significantly and positively correlated with attitudes towards virtual advertising

9 Construct Validity  Dependent Variable:  Recognition of advertisements  Recall of advertisement  Attitude towards advertisements  Independent Variable:  Exposure to virtual advertisements

10 How its Operationalized  Dependent Measures  A written standardized interview followed viewing including questions regarding recognition, recall, and attitude. Used the 5-point multi-attribute Likert scales  Independent Measures  Participants viewed an 18 minute video clip of the soccer match Hertha BSC Berlin vs. VfB Stuttgart

11 Strengths and Weaknesses  Effect Construct:  Strengths Has face and predictive validity Multiple ways of measure Able to quantify results  Weaknesses Question-wording limits responses Questionnaire was given immediately after viewing

12 Strengths and Weaknesses  Cause Construct  Strengths German soccer match, participants were German as well Both conventional and virtual advertising were represented  Weaknesses Only five companies represented Limited video clip Lower competition level No control over prior knowledge of products Only 18-minute clip, not full game length

13 Internal Validity  Design (71 People) O XO (aided) (71 People) O XO (unaided)

14 Group Threats  Participants were “split” into two groups: aided and unaided.  Were they randomly assigned?  Selection instrumentation  The experimenter administering the treatment and questionnaire treated the two groups differently.  Selection history/testing  Were they randomly assigned?

15 Internal Validity  Very strong for this study because of the testing of prior brand awareness and general design

16 Issue  We would have liked to see the questionnaires that were distributed  What questions were on the aided/unaided forms?  Could this have led to bias or different results?

17 Confounding Variables  The researchers tested prior brand awareness and found that it was not a confounding variable because the results were not significant

18 External Validity  Non-random selection 142 German undergrads and grads in business management classes  Is there a type of person that is more apt to take these classes?  More males than females (90.8% to 9.2%)  Soccer interest (majority was low, 40.1%)  Random Assignment?  Doesn’t say whether they were randomly assigned into the two groups  So were the groups really different to start with?

19 Who, When, Where are they trying to generalize to?  Seems like they are trying to generalize to people who watch sporting events  Seems like they are trying to generalize to present and future times  Trying to see if this specific type of advertisement works  Seems like they are trying to generalize to sports watchers who watch a sporting event at home  They understand that this is a limited population, but they state it is just an exploratory study  College age, German, business students**


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