Presentation on theme: "VIRTUAL ADVERTISING IN SPORTS EVENTS: DOES IT REALLY WORK? Lisa Becharas Katie Baumgardner Erin Brown Quincy Henderson Dani Kabbes Casey Richards."— Presentation transcript:
VIRTUAL ADVERTISING IN SPORTS EVENTS: DOES IT REALLY WORK? Lisa Becharas Katie Baumgardner Erin Brown Quincy Henderson Dani Kabbes Casey Richards
Part 1: Article Overview Purpose They wanted to test whether participants could recognize virtual advertising Whether or not exposure time, exposure frequency, and prior brand awareness have a positive impact on the recall of brands advertising They were testing if attitude towards advertising in general is positively correlated with the attitude towards virtual advertising Primary relationship: virtual advertising and its recognition, recall of brands, and attitude
Hypotheses “Virtual advertising is recognized by a majority of television viewers.” “Exposure time, exposure frequency and prior brand awareness have a positive impact on the recall of the brands advertised.” “Attitude towards advertising in general is positively correlated with attitude towards virtual advertising.”
Methods Participants 142 German university students Interest in Soccer Broadcasts High: 34.5% Medium: 23.9% Low: 40.1% Gender Male: 90.8% Female: 9.2%
Methods The students were tested prior to the study (pre-test) on assessing prior brand awareness The students were shown an 18-minute video clip from a televised soccer match Five brands/organizations were advertised during the match
Methods The students were interviewed (post-test) regarding effectiveness of virtual advertising Compared students’ attitudes towards advertising in general and their attitudes towards virtual advertising The participants were given a questionnaire after the video Aided recall: given brands and asked if they saw them Unaided: Tell me what you saw during the video
Results 77.5 % of participants recognized that virtual advertising had been used 92.7 % assigned the virtual advertising correctly (knew what it was)
Results Recall level was very high in both aided and unaided questionnaires Duration of exposure does not play an essential role, whereas the frequency of exposure has a significant influence on the effectiveness of advertising Attitudes towards advertising were significantly and positively correlated with attitudes towards virtual advertising
Construct Validity Dependent Variable: Recognition of advertisements Recall of advertisement Attitude towards advertisements Independent Variable: Exposure to virtual advertisements
How its Operationalized Dependent Measures A written standardized interview followed viewing including questions regarding recognition, recall, and attitude. Used the 5-point multi-attribute Likert scales Independent Measures Participants viewed an 18 minute video clip of the soccer match Hertha BSC Berlin vs. VfB Stuttgart
Strengths and Weaknesses Effect Construct: Strengths Has face and predictive validity Multiple ways of measure Able to quantify results Weaknesses Question-wording limits responses Questionnaire was given immediately after viewing
Strengths and Weaknesses Cause Construct Strengths German soccer match, participants were German as well Both conventional and virtual advertising were represented Weaknesses Only five companies represented Limited video clip Lower competition level No control over prior knowledge of products Only 18-minute clip, not full game length
Internal Validity Design (71 People) O XO (aided) (71 People) O XO (unaided)
Group Threats Participants were “split” into two groups: aided and unaided. Were they randomly assigned? Selection instrumentation The experimenter administering the treatment and questionnaire treated the two groups differently. Selection history/testing Were they randomly assigned?
Internal Validity Very strong for this study because of the testing of prior brand awareness and general design
Issue We would have liked to see the questionnaires that were distributed What questions were on the aided/unaided forms? Could this have led to bias or different results?
Confounding Variables The researchers tested prior brand awareness and found that it was not a confounding variable because the results were not significant
External Validity Non-random selection 142 German undergrads and grads in business management classes Is there a type of person that is more apt to take these classes? More males than females (90.8% to 9.2%) Soccer interest (majority was low, 40.1%) Random Assignment? Doesn’t say whether they were randomly assigned into the two groups So were the groups really different to start with?
Who, When, Where are they trying to generalize to? Seems like they are trying to generalize to people who watch sporting events Seems like they are trying to generalize to present and future times Trying to see if this specific type of advertisement works Seems like they are trying to generalize to sports watchers who watch a sporting event at home They understand that this is a limited population, but they state it is just an exploratory study College age, German, business students**