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Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed)

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1 Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed)

2 Your Mission: To Study Phrases To Study Clauses To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with “Question and Answer” slides. To access, simply click on the words that are highlighted and underlined.

3 What is a Phrase? A phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Common Phrases: Prepositional Phrases Infinitive Phrases Participial Phrases Gerund Phrases

4 Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition (in, on, under, over, around, of, about, through, etc.) Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective or adverbadjectiveadverb

5 Examples of Prepositional Phrase 1. The cadets marched through the woods. “through” is the preposition “the” is the modifier for the object “woods” functions as an adverb 2. Everyone in the class wrote an essay. “in” is the preposition “the” is the modifier for the object “class” functions as an adjective

6 Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive: “to” + verb Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as a noun, adjective or adverbnoun

7 Examples of Infinitive Phrase 1.To exercise every day is a good habit. “to exercise” is the infinitive “every” is the modifier for the object “day” Functions as a noun 2.I was relieved to finish my project. “to finish” is the infinitive “my” is the modifier for the object “project” Functions as an adjective

8 Participial Phrase Begins with a participle: verb ending in “- ed,” “-en,” or “-ing” Followed by an object and any modifiers Functions as an adjective

9 Examples of Participial Phrase 1.The marine biologist, diving near a reef, saw a shark. “diving” is the participle “near a” are the modifiers for the object “reef” Functions as an adjective 2.Known for her patience, Mrs. Garcia was his favorite teacher. “known” is the participle “for her” are the modifiers for the object “patience” Functions as an adjective

10 Gerund Phrase Begins with a gerund: verb ending in “-ing” Followed by object and any modifiers Functions as a noun

11 Examples of Gerund Phrase 1.Marching in unison builds teamwork. “marching” is the gerund “in” is the modifier for the object “unison” Functions as a noun 2.The student enjoys taking morning classes. “taking” is the gerund “morning” is the modifier for the object “classes” Functions as a noun

12 What is a Clause? A clause is a group of related words that contains both a subject and a verb. Two Types of Clauses: Independent Clause Dependent Clause

13 Independent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Makes a complete statement Can stand alone

14 Examples of Independent Clause 1.Del Mar is a community college. “Del Mar” is the subject “is” is the verb “a community college” completes the thought 2.The Writing Center offers a variety of services. “The Writing Center” is the subject “offers” is the verb “a variety of services” completes the thought

15 Dependent Clause Contains a subject and a verb Does not make a complete statement Cannot Stand Alone Begins with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun:subordinating conjunction relative pronoun afterwho althoughwhom asthat relative pronouns becausewhich before subordinating conjunctions whose if since until when

16 Examples of Dependent Clause 1.Because the student prepared for the exam, she answered all of the questions correctly. “because” is the subordinating conjunction “the student” is the subject “prepared” is the verb “for the exam” completes the dependent clause 2.The uniform that I am required to wear is green and brown. “that” is the relative pronoun “I” is the subject “am” is the verb “required to wear” completes the dependent clause

17 Exercise Your Muscles: Phrases Identify the type of phrase in the following: 1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party. 2. To be elected president is his objective. 3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house. 4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting.

18 Answer Key: Identify the type of phrase in the following: 1. Being an excellent cook, Ryan hosted a dinner party. Participial Phrase 2. To be elected president is his objective. Infinitive Phrase 3. The puppy chased the kitten around the house. Prepositional Phrase 4. Hoisting the sail correctly is a critical component of yachting. Gerund Phrase

19 Exercise Your Muscles: Clauses Identify the type of clause in the following: 1. I walk my dog every day. 2. Because he is a teacher. 3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal. 4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer.

20 Answer Key: Identify the type of clause in the following: 1. I walk my dog every day. Independent 2. Because he is a teacher. Dependent 3. As the soccer player scored the winning goal. Dependent 4. Zeke hit his thumb with a hammer. Independent

21 Congratulations! You have successfully completed Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses of Grammar Boot Camp. Sign up for the other sessions of Grammar Boot Camp at the Stone Writing Center’s Website:

22 Q: What is an Adjective? A: An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers the question how many? what kind? or which one? Return to presentation.

23 Q: What is an Adverb? A: An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs tell where, when, why, how, how often, how much, or to what degree. Return to presentation.

24 Q: What is a Noun? A: A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples of Nouns: person place thing A teacher living in Corpus Christi wrote a book idea about integrity. Return to presentation.

25 Q: What is a Subordinating Conjunction? A: A subordinating conjunction is a word that links sentence elements that are not of equal importance. The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions: afteronceuntil althoughsincewhen asthatwhenever becausethoughwhere beforetillwherever ifunlesswhile Return to presentation.

26 Q: What is a Relative Pronoun? A: A relative pronoun is a word that relates the dependent clause to the independent clause within a sentence. The following is a list of relative pronouns: whowhoeverwhat whateverthatwhom whomeverwhosewhichever which Return to presentation.


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