2OverviewIn chapter one we talked about the abilities (or ‘hardware’) that people bring with them to motor performanceIn chapter two we address the processes (or software) people use when attempting skilled movementsIf you will work with individuals with physical or mental challenges, the performance problems are often caused by impairments in one or more of the processes
3Information Processing Model Input – Stim. ID - Resp. Select. – Resp. Program. - Output - Feedback
4Stimulus Identification Stage Stage 1: Has a stimulus been presented and what is it?Environmental information is analyzed through sensesPerformers categorize the information according to patternsTypes of objects, pattern of movement, colors
5Response Selection Stage Stage 2: What response, if any, should be made to the stimulus?Based on the identification of the stimulus, the performer translates the information to the possible forms of movement output to be madeA decision is made
6Response Programming Stage Stage 3: Let’s get ready to do something!The motor system is organized for the production of the desired movementGet the brain and spinal cord ready for movement, get a plan of action to control the movement ready, send a plan to the muscles to contract in the proper order and with the proper amount of force and timing
7The End ResultOutput!Execution of the movement determined to be appropriateThe execution can be successful or unsuccessfulThe next component of information processing is important to the next attempt to be made
8Feedback!As movement is initiated, intrinsic feedback can be used to make adjustments to the movement (if time permits)Intrinsic and extrinsic feedback that occurs after the output occurs should influence the next attemptWhat differences in processing demands might exist for open and closed skills?
9Practical Application Describe the information-processing activities that might occur through the three stages for a soccer goalie.Describe the information-processing activities that might occur through the three stages for an individual who uses a walker and gets out of bed in the middle of the night to answer the phone in the kitchen.
11Preparing a Response Reaction Time (RT) Interval of time between the moment that a stimulus is presented to when a response is initiated.Is a good indicator of the speed and effectiveness of decision makingIndicative of the amount of time needed to prepare a response.Influenced by several factors.Number of choicesStrategies to create or reduce uncertainty to response
12Factors that influence RT Number of stimulus response alternativesSimple vs. choice RTHick’s LawRelationship between the number of movement choices and the time needed to prepare a responseThe higher the degree of uncertainty in a given situation, the longer the time needed to decide which response to makeIn choice RT, RT is a measure of the time needed to detect the stimulus, decide which response to make, and initiate the movement
13Relationship Between Number of Stimulus-Response Alternatives and RT
14An Important StrategyAn important strategy that athletes use to slow down their opponent’s decision making is to increase the number of SR choicesIncrease the number of different pitchesIncrease the variety of spiking positions from a setterIncrease the variety of serves in racquetball or tennis
15Stimulus Response Compatibility The extent to which a stimulus and its required response are naturally relatedLow SR compatibility = increased response timeHigh SR compatibility = decreased response timeLo SR: showing a forehand stroke, but does forehand drop shotHi SR: presentation of a red light, the foot puts on the brake
16Practice and SR Compatibility Amount of practiceThe greater the amount of practice, the shorter the choice RTExtreme amounts of practice, high level performers can become almost automaticNature of practiceWhen the same SR combinations are practiced, choice RT becomes faster
17Dealing with decision-making delays Anticipation!The more predictable a stimulus, the quicker and more accurately a response can be madeRelated to reducing the number of response choices as possible options are narrowed down
18Types of Anticipation Spatial event anticipation Temporal anticipation Predicting what will happen in the environmentTemporal anticipationPredicting when an event will happen
19Effective anticipation Regularity of events affects our capability to predictPrecues: warning signal or action given by a person to help us predict‘telegraphing’ a movement“always” done in a particular way
20Costs of AnticipationCost/benefit tradeoff: 80% probability = decreased RTIf wrong prep, RT will be slower as you must ‘unprepare’ the movementIf wrong movement is initiated: even longer response delayMust inhibit incorrect response, prepare the correct response, and execute in the correct fashion
22The Fake in Sports For fakes to be effective they must: Appear to be identical to the expected actionPrecede the goal movement by msBe employed infrequently
23Creating or reducing uncertainty Having a large number of choices to perform will increase uncertainty in opponentFacilitate skill learning by decreasing the number of alternate responses (start with a more closed skill environment)With increased practice, performers can begin to approach automatic processingWhen practice uses the same S-R combinations, choice RT becomes faster
24Reducing response time Successful performance may not always come by reducing movement prep timeSlow responses may be the result of prolonged movement timeIncrease movement speedReduce length of movement (shorten backswing)Alternate view: give more time to respond by increasing distance or changing to slower equipment
25Attention: Processing Limitations Limited attentional capacitySing asongSing a songApplyMake upDrive a carDrive a carPerformance is hindered orTask may be ignored
26Attention: Processing Limitations Bottleneck theoryStimuli that need a response are processed is serial fashionA bottleneck can occur if too much information must be processed; response time slows down
27Attention: Processing Limitations - Sometimes people will focus on external sensory events (another person’s movement),sometimes they focus on internal mental operations (what they need to do next),sometimes they focus on internal sensory info (how their body feels)Very difficult to focus on more than one of these sources at a time (pat head and rub stomach?)
28Limited Attentional Capacity Stand with dominant side next to the desk.Lift your non-dominant foot slightly off ground and make a figure 8. Repeat continuously.Keep making the figure 8 with foot. Trace a numeral ‘6’ on the desktop with your dominant hand index finger.
29What happened when you attempted to perform the two tasks simultaneously? What does this say about attentional capacity?
30Attention Things to consider: Environmental and task complexity: as complexity increases, attentional space for additional tasks is reducedSkill level: Beginners have trouble focusing on more than one thing at a time; give sufficient practice before adding new tasksNumber of cues: focus on one cue at a time
31Practical Application For a skill of your choice, explain how you might design the learning environment to reduce the attentional demands on the learner.
32AttentionSelective attention: being able to focus on one specific stimuli even though there are lots of stimuli in the environment‘tailgate party phenomenon’We are able to focus on relevant stimuli and disregard irrelevant stimuliSuccessful motor performance is dependent on person’s ability to attend to meaningful information
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34Decision making and arousal Arousal and anxiety are common aspects in daily situationsIf one thinks the demands exceed his/her capability to meet them, the situation becomes more threatening and anxiety is experiencedLevel of arousal is an important determinant of performance especially if the situation requires fast and accurate decision-making
35Arousal and nature of the task A task requiring fine muscle control or important decision-making, prefer lower arousal levelSkills with large muscle actions or lower level of cognitive complexity, better performed at higher arousal level
36Arousal: Inverted U Principle As a task increases incomplexity, lowerarousal levels will beoptimal.Higher arousallevels are better fortasks that requirelittle attention ordecision-making.
37Cue Utilization Hypothesis Perceptual narrowingOver-arousal can narrow the focus too much, so the performer misses some relevant stimuli. Performance may be hindered.Under lowarousal, attentionfocus is broad. Toomuch competitionfor attention resourcesmay result in slowmovement response andhindered performance.
38Practical Application From your own experience, generate a list of the following:Irrelevant stimuli that might draw the attention of an individual with low arousal and thereby affect overall performance.Professions that might find individuals susceptible to poor decision-making when perceptual narrowing occurs.