8 Hierarchical diffusion Among levels of a hierarchyUsually top-downBased on cities or organizations
9 Diffusion of folk vs. popular culture Folk cultureAnonymous or multiple hearthsRelocation, not expansionPopular cultureDeliberate innovation, advanced economiesMass productionExpansion (hierarchical or contagious)
12 Diffusion and sports: soccer English, Scots, Vikings, Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Chinese, Japanese, Toltecs, Native AmericansFolk origin: 11th century EnglandVillage-wide contestsBanned between late 1300s and 1600
13 Diffusion and sports: soccer Transition to popular cultureIndustrial Revolution: more time, incomeProfessional soccer leagues (1863)Standardized rulesDistinguished from rugby
14 Diffusion and sports: soccer Spread by contagious diffusionExchange students from NetherlandsEnglish engineers to SpainExpatriates throughout British EmpireRugby modified in U.S.: American footballRapid spread through television
15 Diffusion and sports: baseball Based on British “rounders”1846: first game with U.S. rules: leisure game for wealthyContagious diffusion via Union Army1871: first professional league1903: first “World” Series
16 Diffusion and sports: baseball Relocation diffusionVia military: Japan, CaribbeanVia elite students: Latin AmericaShifting center of populationNew leagues; real World Series?