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Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution? Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution? Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution? Chapter 19.1 What were some of the effects of the Industrial Revolution?

2 ure=player_detailpage&v=WPvgXS ur2bM (5min)http://www.youtube.com/watch?feat ure=player_detailpage&v=WPvgXS ur2bM (5min)http://www.youtube.com/watch?feat ure=player_detailpage&v=WPvgXS ur2bMhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feat ure=player_detailpage&v=WPvgXS ur2bM

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4 The industrial revolution in Great Britain Started in Britain and took several decades to spread to other countries. Why Britain?Started in Britain and took several decades to spread to other countries. Why Britain? - an agrarian revolution changed agricultural practices. Increased food supply.- an agrarian revolution changed agricultural practices. Increased food supply. - population grew. Parliament passed enclosure movement laws and landowners fenced off common lands.- population grew. Parliament passed enclosure movement laws and landowners fenced off common lands. - had a ready supply of money to invest into new machines and factories. Entrepreneurs found new ways to make profits.- had a ready supply of money to invest into new machines and factories. Entrepreneurs found new ways to make profits. - had plentiful natural resources, like iron ore and coal.- had plentiful natural resources, like iron ore and coal. - a supply of markets gave British manufacturers a ready outlet for their goods.- a supply of markets gave British manufacturers a ready outlet for their goods.

5 The Enclosure Movement

6 “ Enclosed ” Lands Today

7 1. Changes in Cotton Production Britain way ahead in production of inexpensive cotton goods. Was a two step process – spinners make cotton thread from raw cotton and then weavers wove the cotton into cloth on looms. Used the cottage industry for many years. 18 th century new advances made cottage industry inefficient. Invention of the “flying shuffle” made weaving faster. James Hargreaves invented a spinning jenny that produced thread much quicker. Edmund Cartwright invented a water powered loom that allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of the thread. Led to a factory system. James Watts invented steam engine to drive the machine.Britain way ahead in production of inexpensive cotton goods. Was a two step process – spinners make cotton thread from raw cotton and then weavers wove the cotton into cloth on looms. Used the cottage industry for many years. 18 th century new advances made cottage industry inefficient. Invention of the “flying shuffle” made weaving faster. James Hargreaves invented a spinning jenny that produced thread much quicker. Edmund Cartwright invented a water powered loom that allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of the thread. Led to a factory system. James Watts invented steam engine to drive the machine.

8 John Kay ’ s “ Flying Shuttle ”

9 Richard Arkwright: “ Pioneer of the Factory System ” The “Water Frame”

10 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which reduced the amount of time needed to clean seeds from cotton fiber by tenfold in 1793; he also pioneered the use of interchangeable parts

11 Textile Factory Workers in England looms 150, 000 workers , 000 looms 200, 000 workers , 000 looms>1 million workers

12 Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. ) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. ) Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. ) Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

13 The Factory System × Rigid schedule. × hour day. × Dangerous conditions. × Mind-numbing monotony.

14 14 Work Rules Berlin 1844 Work day begins at 6amWork day begins at 6am Half hour break for breakfastHalf hour break for breakfast Hour break for dinnerHour break for dinner Half hour for teaHalf hour for tea Ends at 7pmEnds at 7pm 2 minutes late loose half days wage2 minutes late loose half days wage More than two minutes late- will not start work till after first break, or loose wage till thenMore than two minutes late- will not start work till after first break, or loose wage till then No worker can leave his place of workNo worker can leave his place of work All conversations prohibitedAll conversations prohibited

15 Textile Factory Workers in England

16 Young “ Bobbin-Doffers ”

17 2. The Coal and Iron Industries Steam engine was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Used coal. Also had iron ore and came up with new methods to use it as well.Steam engine was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Used coal. Also had iron ore and came up with new methods to use it as well.

18 Mine & Forge [ ] ù More powerful than water is coal. ù More powerful than wood is iron. ù Innovations make steel feasible.  “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”  “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.  Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.

19 James Watt ’ s Steam Engine

20 Steam Tractor

21 An Early Steam Locomotive

22 Steam Ship

23 That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

24 3. The New Factories Factory was another important element. Workers were put in shifts to keep the machines producing. Workers came from the rural areas where long days were normal. Workers disciplined to a system of regular hours and repetitive tasks, was harsh if late or drunk, (fired) so workers tried to work hard.Factory was another important element. Workers were put in shifts to keep the machines producing. Workers came from the rural areas where long days were normal. Workers disciplined to a system of regular hours and repetitive tasks, was harsh if late or drunk, (fired) so workers tried to work hard.

25 Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure

26 Metals, Woolens, & Canals

27 Coalfields & Industrial Areas

28 18001 ton of coal50, 000 miners tons200, 000 miners million tons500, 000 miners million tons1, 200, 000 miners Coal Mining in Britain:

29 Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

30 Young Coal Miners

31 4. Railroads Locomotives invented and then improved. Cars now ran on top of rails. Linked manufacturing towns with ports, like Manchester with Liverpool. Railroad expansion caused a ripple effect in the economy. Building railroads created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants. Less expensive transportation led to lower priced goods thus creating larger markets. More sales meant more factories and more machinery.Locomotives invented and then improved. Cars now ran on top of rails. Linked manufacturing towns with ports, like Manchester with Liverpool. Railroad expansion caused a ripple effect in the economy. Building railroads created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants. Less expensive transportation led to lower priced goods thus creating larger markets. More sales meant more factories and more machinery.

32 George Stephenson , developed the first steam-powered locomotive, The Rocket, which could move people and products between Liverpool and London regardless of the weather in 1814

33 Later Locomotives

34 The Impact of the Railroad

35 B. The Spread of Industrialization Great Britain was also the richest nation.Great Britain was also the richest nation. 1. Europe 1. Europe Other countries industrialized at varied speeds. Those that did usually had a government that was actively encouraging industrialization.Other countries industrialized at varied speeds. Those that did usually had a government that was actively encouraging industrialization. 2. North America The U.S.A. needed a good transportation system to move goods across the large nation. Robert Fulton built the first paddle wheel steamboat, the Clermont. Railroad was most important. The county became a single massive market for the manufactured goods of the northeast. Factory owners sought entire families to work in their factories.The U.S.A. needed a good transportation system to move goods across the large nation. Robert Fulton built the first paddle wheel steamboat, the Clermont. Railroad was most important. The county became a single massive market for the manufactured goods of the northeast. Factory owners sought entire families to work in their factories.

36 eventually banned in most industrialized nations Child labor Employing children as young as 8 years of age to do factory work; Due to detrimental effects, this practice was

37 C. Social Impact in Europe 1. Population and Urban Growth1. Population and Urban Growth Population grew tremendously…. WHY? –a. a decline in the death rate because people more resistant to disease. –b. Famine seemed to have disappeared. Many thought population growth led to economic growth. Thomas Malthus wrote about poverty and population growth. He said when there is an increase in the food supply, the population tends to increase too fast for the food supply to keep up leading to famine, disease, and war. Famine and poverty were two factors in global migration and urbanization. The rapid growth of cities led to pitiful living conditions for many.

38 Thomas Malthus × Population growth will outpace the food supply. × War, disease, or famine could control population. × The poor should have less children. × Food supply will then keep up with population.

39 The New Industrial City

40 Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman

41 Worker Housing in Manchester

42 Early-19c London by Gustave Dore

43 Workers Housing in Newcastle Today

44 2. The Industrial Working Class Middle ages saw the rise of commercial capitalism, which is based on trade. Industrial capitalism is based on industrial production and it created a new class of people – industrial middle class. It was the bourgeoisie which now included bankers, factory owners and developers, lawyers, teachers, and doctors. New industrial middle class was made up of the people who built the factories, brought the machines and developed the markets.Middle ages saw the rise of commercial capitalism, which is based on trade. Industrial capitalism is based on industrial production and it created a new class of people – industrial middle class. It was the bourgeoisie which now included bankers, factory owners and developers, lawyers, teachers, and doctors. New industrial middle class was made up of the people who built the factories, brought the machines and developed the markets.

45 19 c Bourgeoisie

46 Stereotype of the Factory Owner

47 3. The Industrial Working Class Created a working class that faced wretched working conditions. Conditions in coal mines were harsh. The worst were cotton mills. In some factories children were a main employed person. Laws would soon be made to limit this.Created a working class that faced wretched working conditions. Conditions in coal mines were harsh. The worst were cotton mills. In some factories children were a main employed person. Laws would soon be made to limit this.

48 × “Iron Law of Wages.” × When wages are high, workers have more children. × More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.

49 Factory and Mine Life hours a day12-16 hours a day No minimum wageNo minimum wage Horrible conditionsHorrible conditions Britain women made two thirds work forceBritain women made two thirds work force Factory Act 1833Factory Act 1833 –9 as minimum wage –Ages 9-13 worked 9 hours a day –Ages worked 12 hours a day Excessive working hours for women outlawed 1844Excessive working hours for women outlawed 1844 Changed the “bread winner ideals”Changed the “bread winner ideals”

50 4. Early socialism Some reformers wanted to bring in socialism to help the workers. In socialism society, government owns and controls some means of production such as factories and utilities. Early socialists wrote books about the ideal society that might be created. In this society, workers could use their abilities and everyone’s needs would be met. Called Utopian society as Robert Owen used it. He created New Lanark, Scotland, (successful) and New Harmony, Indiana, (failed), to prove his ideas.Some reformers wanted to bring in socialism to help the workers. In socialism society, government owns and controls some means of production such as factories and utilities. Early socialists wrote books about the ideal society that might be created. In this society, workers could use their abilities and everyone’s needs would be met. Called Utopian society as Robert Owen used it. He created New Lanark, Scotland, (successful) and New Harmony, Indiana, (failed), to prove his ideas.

51 The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists × People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. × Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. × Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].

52 19-1 Review Improved food supplies, large labor force, and abundant money supply contributed to this countries Industrial Revolution.Improved food supplies, large labor force, and abundant money supply contributed to this countries Industrial Revolution. BritainBritain Railroad construction, coal mining, and factory production were all newly created what by the Industrial Revolution?Railroad construction, coal mining, and factory production were all newly created what by the Industrial Revolution? JobsJobs The movement away from home production, the need for more power, and increased exports of British cotton goods, were the results of what?The movement away from home production, the need for more power, and increased exports of British cotton goods, were the results of what?

53 19-1 Review Factory systemFactory system Money supplyMoney supply capitalcapital Seekers of new business opportunitiesSeekers of new business opportunities entrepreneursentrepreneurs Invention that improved thread productionInvention that improved thread production Spinning JennySpinning Jenny Production method using rural at-home workersProduction method using rural at-home workers cottage industrycottage industry Governmental ownership and control of productionGovernmental ownership and control of production

54 19-1 Review socialismsocialism The steam engine, used to drive machinery, was improved by who?The steam engine, used to drive machinery, was improved by who? James Watt James Watt The textile industry met its last major challenge to full mechanization with the development of improvements to what?The textile industry met its last major challenge to full mechanization with the development of improvements to what? the steam engine the steam engine


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