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The Great Migration (Part 2) Delta State University Cleveland, Mississippi Alan P. Marcus, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Towson University Department of Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Migration (Part 2) Delta State University Cleveland, Mississippi Alan P. Marcus, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Towson University Department of Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Migration (Part 2) Delta State University Cleveland, Mississippi Alan P. Marcus, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Towson University Department of Geography Email:


3 Tinariwen (Tuareg people from Mali, Nortwest Africa): Tinariwen Mississippi Fred McDowell: Rolling Stones (Sticky Fingers 1971): Black Keys (Junior Kimbrough tribute):

4 Diaspora, diffusion, distribution Influences from Northern African Berbers (e.g.; instruments), music from the Middle East (e.g.; Arabic music, and Islamic monotone tone and cadence, calls for prayer), Syncretic musical and cultural movement in West Africa (animistic components). West African slaves bring calls, field hollers, Blues in the Mississippi delta. Post-world war radio station in UK, playing American music, mostly blues and jazz. London, Liverpool, and Newcastle. When the Beatles arrived in US in 1964, Americans become familiar with black American music. The blues returned to the US. 1 2 3 4


6 SPATIAL DIFFUSION The process by which a concept, practice, or substance spreads from its point of origin to new territories Two types -- Relocation diffusion -- Expansion diffusion

7 Food Diffusion southern culture: later known as Soul Food Blues: Muddy Waters (from Mississippi To Chicago and then the world!)

8 Great Resource: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History & Culture The African-American Mosaic

9 “Chicago, Illinois. Newsboy selling the Chicago Defender, a leading Negro newspaper 1942” ource/fsa.8d03176/ “Narrating” the migration to the “Promised Land

10 The geographic isolation and discriminatory school policies imposed on urban blacks gradually lowered the quality of their public education system and inspired the use of stopgap measures to solve such problems as overcrowding. For example, the Ida B. Wells housing project community center was used to alleviate overcrowding in the kindergarten classes of the Chicago school system. Ida B. Wells housing project, Chicago, Illinois, April 1942 Jack Delano, Photographer Photomural from gelatin-silver print FSA-OWI Collection Prints and Photographs Division (121)


12 RELOCATION DIFFUSION Sequential diffusion is a process in which items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas & relocate to new areas. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population.



15 EXPANSION DIFFUSION The spreading of an innovation or idea through a fixed population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanded area of dissemination Two types -- Contagious Expansion -- Hierarchical Expansion

16 CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person Analogous to the communication of a contagious disease




20 HIERARCHICAL EXPANSION A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by “trickling down” from larger to smaller adopting units

21 Hierarchy Highest Lowest Intermediate HIERARCHICAL EXPANSION







28 The diffusion to the UK, the influence of delta in rock and roll: Lonnie Donegan singing “Jack o Diamonds” and other songs made popular in UK in the 1950s – keep in mind these were all songs mostly by Leadbelly and traditional African-American songs from the Deep South, some about “bad men” such as Stagolee, and O’Riley, and John Henry – who in the songs would take a stand against authority (resistance?). Donegan changed his first name from Tony to Lonnie, in honor of Lonnie Johnson, a 1930s bluesman, who’d been in England on a tour (as early as 1917!) Quarrymen (1957) when Paul met John: Early Jimmie Page (years before Led Zeppelin – influence of Skiffle): (Skiffle craze in UK) *Back to the US. Think: DIFUSSION and MOVEMENT

29 1950s and 60s – Diffusion of Rock’n’Roll and Blues – start of the SKIFFLE CRAZE (blues, trad. And Leadbelly songs) Discarded from the US and welcomed in the UK Bill Wymans’ Blues Odyssey. The Impact open G tuning – diffusion (queue at 2:40mins) Lonnie Donegan’s 1956 hit (a Leadbelly song): “Rock Island Line”

30 Newcastle Liverpooll London Animals Beatles Gerry &the PaceMakers, The Hollies Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Who, The Yardbirds

31 1960s– “British Invasion” - Brought US American music “home” and Americans heard it as if it were listening it for the first time

32 Note the influence of OPEN G tuning, and delta blues style of playing, and, characterstic of blues songs: three stanzas, first two repeat -rhymes, and cadence – structure of blues (also listen and read lyrics to: “Just can’t keep from crying sometimes”, by Blind Willie Johnson). Take for example, the Everly Brothers’ “Wake Up Little Suzie”, here seen playing “Open G tuning” - Don Everly learned this tuning from Bo Diddley (a Mississippian), and Everly, in turn taught it to Keith Richards (Rolling Stones), who later used this tuning on most Stones classic songs (e.g.; “Can’t you hear me knocking,” “Honky Tonk Women,” “Start me up,” etc.)….these being only just one of many ties, of course, between the Rolling Stones and blues (one being that the band is named after a Muddy Waters song “Rolling Stone”): xK7S20&feature=related xK7S20&feature=related

33 An estimated 20,000 Confederates from the USA emigrated to S ã o Paulo, Brazil, right after the Civil War. It was the biggest political exodus in U.S. history. The Descendants of Confederates. Santa Barbara D’Oeste, São Paulo

34 The story of Robert Johnson: Mississippi Delta Blues Bar– past logo was a confederate flag, with a poster of a local Lynyrd Skynyrd cover band: Mississippi Delta Bar:

35 Definition: Shared patterns of learned behavior Components: – Beliefs – Institutions – Technology CULTURE

36 The source areas from which radiated ideas, innovations, and ideologies that change the world beyond CULTURE HEARTH

37 Julian Huxley/Leslie White 3-part structure of cultural subsystems: (1) Ideological (mentifacts): mythologies, legends, philosophy, language/religion (2) Technological (artifacts): Tools, objects, housing, clothes (3) Sociological (sociofacts): interpersonal relations, military, politics, economics.

38 Culture is learned, it is not biological/genetic

39 The composite of human imprints on the earth’s surface. Carl Sauer’s definition: “ the forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of man” CULTURAL LANDSCAPE


41 the Lebanese in the Delta: Mississippi Chinese: people-in-a-biracial-society Mississippi Italians:!/group.php?gid =50371535793&v=wall Delta Jews: people-in-a-biracial-society!/group.php?gid =50371535793&v=wall

42 Compare original blues versions with later versions Examples of cultural diffusion – from the Mississippi Delta, from black America to the UK and back to the US –adapting, adopting, changing and editing according to forces of the industry and illustrating geographical movement from point of origin to point of destination. What other contemporary versions can you find which are blues songs originally? 1.Original Version….Robert Johnson “Love in Vain” (1938): Rolling Stones version (live 1969): 2. Original Version Robert Johnson: “Cross Road Blues (1938): Cream version (1968): 3.Original version….Big Mama Thornton “Hound Dog”: Hound dog 1956 Elvis version: 4.ORIGINAL version….Big Joe Turner “Shake and Rattle and Roll” (note the original lyrics were edited in later versions): Bill Haley and his Comets (note the “sanitized "for white audiences): Elvis version: 5. ORIGINAL version….Little Richard “Tutti Frutti” (1956): Pat Boone (marketing the same song for “white” audiences – devoid of dancing in Richard’s style): 6.ORIGINAL version….Muddy Waters, “I just want to make love to you”: Rolling Stones: Foghat, 1970s band version: Also, their almost identical song “Slow Ride” 1970s hit, a virtual carbon-copy of the same song:\

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