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The NNEST Lens: Implications and directions Ahmar Mahboob

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1 The NNEST Lens: Implications and directions Ahmar Mahboob

2 Outline What is the NNEST lens Implications and directions Discussion & questions

3 What is the NNEST Lens “A lens of multilingualism, multinationalism, and multiculturalism through which NNESTs – as classroom practitioners, researchers, and teacher educators – take diversity as a starting point, rather than as a result. The NNEST lens is multilingual because, by definition, NNESTs speak at least one language in addition to English. The NNEST lens is multinational because NNESTs come from different parts of the world and represent diverse ethnic, national, and racial origins. And, finally, the NNEST lens is multicultural because NNESTs coming from different national and geographic regions represent different ways of construing reality (through language)” (Mahboob 2010; p. 1)

4 Implications and directions – Attitudes towards NESTs/NNESTs – Hiring practices & issues of discrimination – Directions in TESOL Training NNESTs and NESTs for equity Collaboration between NESTs and NNESTs – Concepts and issues in Linguistics Defining language Defining language proficiency – Concepts and issues in Applied Linguistics Identity research Language testing Second language acquisition

5 Attitudes towards NNESTs This is probably one of the most prolific areas of NNEST studies. There are now literary dozens of studies that have looked at perceptions of various stakeholders towards NNESTs. These studies typically show a mixed reaction towards NESTs and NNESTs and identify aspects of language teaching where NESTs and NNESTs have relative strengths. Some references to check out: – Braine, G. (2010). Nonnative speaker English teachers: Research, pedagogy, and professional growth. New York, NY: Routledge. – Moussu, L., & Llurda, E. (2008). Non-native English-speaking English language teachers: History and research. Language Teaching, 41(3), a.pdf?sequence= a.pdf?sequence=1 – Llurda, E. (2015). Non-native teachers and advocacy. In M. Bigelow and J. Ennser-Kananen (Eds) The Routledge Handbook of Educational Linguistics. New York: Routledge, pp https://www.academia.edu/ /Non- native_teachers_and_advocacyhttps://www.academia.edu/ /Non- native_teachers_and_advocacy

6 Hiring practices and issues of discrimination There are now some, but not many, studies that have looked at aspects of discrimination. In addition to issues of nativeness, other areas to consider include: gender, race, ethnicity, nationality,appearance and/or sexual orientation. Current research in this area, unfortunately, shows that the job market is not fair and open, but that a number of hidden and not-so-hidden agendas are at work. Some references to check out: – Selvi, A. F. (2010). “All teachers are equal, but some teachers are more equal than others”: Trend analysis of job advertisements in English language teaching. WATESOL NNEST Caucus Annual Review, 1, 156–181. Retrieved from – Mahboob, A., & Golden, R. (2013). Looking for native speakers of English: Discrimination in English language teaching job advertisements. Voices in Asia Journal, 1(1), 72–81. Can be downloaded from: https://www.academia.edu/ /Looking_for_Native_Speakers_of_Englis h_Discrimination_in_English_Language_Teaching_Job_Advertisements https://www.academia.edu/ /Looking_for_Native_Speakers_of_Englis h_Discrimination_in_English_Language_Teaching_Job_Advertisements

7 Directions in TESOL – Training NNESTs & NESTs for equity – Collaboration between NESTs and NNESTs

8 Training NNESTs & NESTs for equity Teaching methodology books in TESOL as well as key reviews of studies in Applied Linguistics now include chapters/sections/volume that focus on NNEST issues. These chapters develop greater awareness of issues of native/non- nativeness in the profession as well as provide ideas and strategies that can be used in classroom teaching (by NNESTs) and in teacher education. Some references to check out: – Blanca, C. (2012). The “NNEST Lens” in Action: Preparing NESTs and NNESTs for Professional Equity.http://blancacoma.myefolio.com/capstonehttp://blancacoma.myefolio.com/capstone – Barratt, L. (2010). Strategies to Prepare Teachers Equally for Equity. In A. Mahboob (Ed.) The NNEST Lens: Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press. https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Native_E nglish_Speakers_in_TESOL https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Native_E nglish_Speakers_in_TESOL

9 Collaboration between NESTs and NNESTs This body of work looks at ways in which NESTs and NNESTs can collaborate to provide better language learning experience to their students. Some references to check out: – Luo, W-H. (2010). Collaborative Teaching of EFL by Native and Non- native English speaking Teachers in Taiwan. In A. Mahboob (Ed.) The NNEST Lens: Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press. https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Native_E nglish_Speakers_in_TESOL https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Native_E nglish_Speakers_in_TESOL – Wang, L-Y. (2013). Non-native EFL Teacher Trainees’ Attitude towards the Recruitment of NESTs and Teacher Collaboration in Language Classrooms. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol 4, No 1,

10 Concepts and issues in linguistics – Defining language – Language proficiency

11 Defining language Linguists have been questioning the nature of language. Some of the recent work looks at the arbitrary nature of boundary between languages (and modalities) and looks at its implications in education. Other work in this area looks at how language variation can be conceptualized and understood in the context of education. Garcia, O., & Wei, L. (2013). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Mahboob, A. (2014). Understanding Language Variation: Implications for EIL pedagogy. In R. Marlina & R. Giri (Eds.) The Pedagogy of English as an International Language: Theoretical and Practical perspectives from the Asia-Pacific. Switzerland: Springer. https://www.academia.edu/ /Understanding_Language_Va riation_Implications_for_EIL_Pedagogy https://www.academia.edu/ /Understanding_Language_Va riation_Implications_for_EIL_Pedagogy

12 Language proficiency This work questions static understandings of language. For example, Mahboob & Dutcher (2014) write: Language proficiency is dynamic and is determined by our control of the features of the language that are relevant to the nature and the setting of the communicative event. This means that being proficient in a language implies that we are sensitive to the setting and nature of a communicative event, and that we have the ability to select, adapt, negotiate and use a range of linguistic resources that are appropriate in that context. Some references to check out: – Mahboob, A. & Dutcher, L. (2014). Dynamic Approach to Language Proficiency: A model. In Mahboob, A. & Barratt, L. (Eds.). Englishes in Multilingual Contexts: Language Variation and Education. London: Springer. https://www.academia.edu/ /Dynamic_Approach_to_Languag e_Proficiency_A_Model https://www.academia.edu/ /Dynamic_Approach_to_Languag e_Proficiency_A_Model

13 Concepts and issues in Applied Linguistics – Identity research – Language testing – Second language acquisition

14 Identity research There is a growing interest in issues of identity across social sciences, including applied linguistics and TESOL. This are looks at identity as being fluid, dynamic, situated, and negotiated rather than being static. Some references to check out: – Djenar, D. N., Mahboob, A. & Cruickshank, K. (2015). Language and Identity across Modes of Communication. Berlin and Boston: Mouton de Gruyter. – Kubota, R., & Lin, A. (2009). Race, culture, and identities in second language education: Exploring critically engaged practice. New York, NY: Routledge. – Motha, S., Jain, R., & Tecle, T. (2012). Translinguistic identity-as pedagogy: Implications for language teacher education. International Journal of Innovation in English Language Teaching, 1 (1), 13–27.

15 Language testing This work, influenced by research on World Englishes and EIL (English as an International Language), is calling the validity of tests that use inner-circle norms into question. Some references to check out: – Canagarajah, S. (2006). Changing Communicative Needs, Revised Assessment Objectives: Testing English as an International Language. Language Assessment Quarterly 3(3), 229– – Lowenberg, P. H. (2002). Assessing English proficiency in the expanding circle. World Englishes, 21, 431–435.

16 Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Research in SLA has taken a social (and sociocultural) turn and has questioned ‘native-speaker norm’ as the target of language acquisition. Recent work in the area includes socio-cultural approaches as well using conversational analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative research. Some references to check out: – Atkinson, D. (2011). Alternative approaches to second language acquisition. London, England: Routledge. – Ishihara, N. (2010). Maintaining an optimal distance: Nonnative speakers’ pragmatic choice. In A. Mahboob (Ed.) The NNEST Lens: Nonnative English Speakers in TESOL. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press. https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Na tive_English_Speakers_in_TESOL https://www.academia.edu/358693/The_NNEST_Lens_Non_Na tive_English_Speakers_in_TESOL

17 Concluding remarks The interrelated fields of linguistics, applied linguistics, and TESOL are going through major changes at this point in time. Many of these changes can be understood as a consequence of the questioning of key assumptions in the field by researchers and practitioners who take a ‘multilingual, multinational, and multicultural’ perspective. In saying this, I do not claim that all of this work is a consequence of people adopting the “NNEST lens” – it is not, there are a number of factors that have contributed to this shift. However, what is noticeable is that many of these recent developments recognize language as more than a set of rules based on an abstract notion of a native speaker; and, language learning as more than the ‘acquisition’ of these rules. In doing so, these developments reflect the value of the NNEST lens in moving our fields forward.

18 References on NNEST (and other TESOL/Applied Linguistics) topics


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