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Urban Tourism Session 3 Different Types of Urban Tourism Destinations

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1 Urban Tourism Session 3 Different Types of Urban Tourism Destinations
RDI Management Learning

2 Tourist City Types Objectives:
To conceptualise the urban tourism product To identify different types of tourist cities To look at “ideal types” of tourist cities To investigate how the supply of tourist and leisure products often overlap in cities

3 Conceptualising Urban Tourism
Ways different types of cities have been named in the literature: Resort Cities, Converted Cities, World Cities, Asian Cities (Judd and Fainstein 1999) Tourist Urbanisations (Mullins 1991) Fantasy Cities (Hannigan 1998) Tourist-Historic Cities (Ashworth and Tunbridge 1990) Declining Cities, Cultural Capitals (Biancini 1993) Difficult Areas (Buckley and Witt 1985 & 1989) Major Cities, Provincial Cities (Law 1993) Inner City Tourism (Jansen-Verbeke 1985 & 1986) Hinterland Cities (Blank 1996) Industrial Towns (Barke and Harrop 1994) And many more….

4 Primary Elements Activity Place Cultural facilities Sports facilities
Amusement Facilities Jansen-Verbeke (1986) Leisure Setting Physical characteristics Socio-Cultural Features

5 Secondary and Additional Elements
Secondary Elements Hotels and Catering Markets Shopping Jansen-Verbeke (1986) Additional Elements Accessibility Tourist Infrastructures

6 The Resort City Entertainment at a premium Popular culture
Leisure pursuits (Post) modern Inauthentic?

7 The Tourist-Historic City
Historicity Pre-Industrial Heritage Intellectual Stimulation Authentic?

8 Cities of “High” Culture
Rare artefacts Place of learning Culture as high art No McDonalds here!?

9 The Post-Industrial City
New to the tourist market Industrial heritage Entertainment Image problems Making the most of what you’ve got!

10 The World City Incorporating all of the previous types of tourist city
Political and administrative functions Transport hub Image rich

11 The Resort City – Las Vegas
City grew around the tourist Industry Massive capacity Market adaptation The changing city

12 The Tourist-Historic City - York
Preservation of heritage Style of new buildings closely controlled Staged history/culture The city as spectacle

13 The City of “High” Culture – Venice/Florence
Art Galleries / Architecture / Carnival Classical Music / Opera Keep the popular out! Concerns over visitor management

14 The Post Industrial City - Glasgow
Suffering from manufacturing and industrial decline by late 1970s Suffering from poor image and out migration.

15 The Post Industrial City - Glasgow
Place marketing efforts Glasgow’s Miles Better (1983) Development of Infrastructure Sandblasting (1980s) Museums, Festivals, Art (80s & 90s) Prestigious Awards: Garden festival (1988) European City of Culture(1990) UK City of Architecture (1999)

16 The World City - London Wealth of attractions Multi-functionality
Appeals to many tourists with different motivations

17 Cities are often jigsaws
Many cities contain components of each type Many cities try to diversify their resource by including different attractions Cities are often modular in terms of containing different aspects of the other types of cities for example we can see that Newcastle may be dominated by the fact that it is a post industrial city, and has tried to re-interpret much of its heritage and architecture It turns itself into a cultural city and nightlife city but it also has an aspect in common with York in terms of possessing some limited pre industrial buildings Castle Keep.

18 Colliding Cities Las Vegas – city of culture?
York – themed shopping mall? Jorvik – theme park or museum? London / Newcastle – Las Vegas on Thames / Tyne? Las Vegas – family fun in sin city?

19 Further Reading on City Types
Buckley, P. J. & Witt, S. F. (1985). Tourism in Difficult Areas: Case Studies of Bradford, Bristol, Glasgow and Hamm. Tourism Management. September. pp Buckley, P. J. & Witt, S. F. (1989). Tourism in Difficult Areas II: Case Studies of Calderdale, Leeds, Manchester and Scunthorpe. Tourism Management. June. pp Burgers J. (1995). Public Space in the Post – Industrial City. In Jansen-Verbeke M, & van de Weil, E. in Ashworth G.J. & Dietvorst A.G.D. (Eds). Tourism and Spatial Transformations. CAB International:Wallingford. Chatterton, P. & Hollands, R. (2001). Changing our ‘Toon’ – Youth, Nightlife and Urban Change in Newcastle. Newcastle: University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Gomez, M, V. (1998). Reflective Images: The case of Urban Regeneration in Glasgow and Bilbao. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol 22 (1). pp 106 – 22. Hannigan, J. (1998). Fantasy City: Pleasure and Profit in the Postmodern Metropolis. Routledge: London. Harcup, T. (2000). Re-imaging a Post-Industrial City: The Leeds St. Valentine’s Fair as a Civic Spectacle. City. Vol 4 (2). pp Jansen–Verbeke, M. (1986). Inner City Tourism: Resources, Tourists and Promoters. Annals of Tourism Research. 13 (1): 79 –100. Judd, D. R., & Fainstein S. S.(Eds). (1999). The Tourist City. Yale University Press: London. Mullins, P. (1991). Tourism Urbanization. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol 15. No 3. Tyler et al.(1998). Managing Tourism in Cities. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Miles, M. (1995). Art and Urban Regeneration. Urban History. Vol. 22 (2). pp You won’t find these in the original reading list they are extras, mainly looking at cities such as newcastle and sunderland - Remember to use Inter Library Loans

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