Presentation on theme: "Urban Tourism Session 3 Different Types of Urban Tourism Destinations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Urban Tourism Session 3 Different Types of Urban Tourism Destinations RDI Management Learning
2 Tourist City Types Objectives: To conceptualise the urban tourism productTo identify different types of tourist citiesTo look at “ideal types” of tourist citiesTo investigate how the supply of tourist and leisure products often overlap in cities
3 Conceptualising Urban Tourism Ways different types of cities have been named in the literature:Resort Cities, Converted Cities, World Cities, Asian Cities (Judd and Fainstein 1999)Tourist Urbanisations (Mullins 1991)Fantasy Cities (Hannigan 1998)Tourist-Historic Cities (Ashworth and Tunbridge 1990)Declining Cities, Cultural Capitals (Biancini 1993)Difficult Areas (Buckley and Witt 1985 & 1989)Major Cities, Provincial Cities (Law 1993)Inner City Tourism (Jansen-Verbeke 1985 & 1986)Hinterland Cities (Blank 1996)Industrial Towns (Barke and Harrop 1994)And many more….
4 Primary Elements Activity Place Cultural facilities Sports facilities Amusement FacilitiesJansen-Verbeke (1986)Leisure SettingPhysical characteristicsSocio-Cultural Features
5 Secondary and Additional Elements Secondary ElementsHotels and CateringMarketsShoppingJansen-Verbeke (1986)Additional ElementsAccessibilityTourist Infrastructures
6 The Resort City Entertainment at a premium Popular culture Leisure pursuits(Post) modernInauthentic?
7 The Tourist-Historic City HistoricityPre-Industrial HeritageIntellectual StimulationAuthentic?
8 Cities of “High” Culture Rare artefactsPlace of learningCulture as high artNo McDonalds here!?
9 The Post-Industrial City New to the tourist marketIndustrial heritageEntertainmentImage problemsMaking the most of what you’ve got!
10 The World City Incorporating all of the previous types of tourist city Political and administrative functionsTransport hubImage rich
11 The Resort City – Las Vegas City grew around the tourist IndustryMassive capacityMarket adaptationThe changing city
12 The Tourist-Historic City - York Preservation of heritageStyle of new buildings closely controlledStaged history/cultureThe city as spectacle
13 The City of “High” Culture – Venice/Florence Art Galleries / Architecture / CarnivalClassical Music / OperaKeep the popular out!Concerns over visitor management
14 The Post Industrial City - Glasgow Suffering from manufacturing and industrial decline by late 1970sSuffering from poor image and out migration.
15 The Post Industrial City - Glasgow Place marketing effortsGlasgow’s Miles Better (1983)Development of InfrastructureSandblasting (1980s)Museums, Festivals, Art (80s & 90s)Prestigious Awards:Garden festival (1988)European City of Culture(1990)UK City of Architecture (1999)
16 The World City - London Wealth of attractions Multi-functionality Appeals to many tourists with different motivations
17 Cities are often jigsaws Many cities contain components of each typeMany cities try to diversify their resource by including different attractionsCities are often modular in terms of containing different aspects of the other types of citiesfor example we can see that Newcastle may be dominated by the fact that it is a post industrial city, and has tried to re-interpret much of its heritage and architectureIt turns itself into a cultural city and nightlife city but it also has an aspect in common with York in terms of possessing some limited pre industrial buildings Castle Keep.
18 Colliding Cities Las Vegas – city of culture? York – themed shopping mall?Jorvik – theme park or museum?London / Newcastle – Las Vegas on Thames / Tyne?Las Vegas – family fun in sin city?
19 Further Reading on City Types Buckley, P. J. & Witt, S. F. (1985). Tourism in Difficult Areas: Case Studies of Bradford, Bristol, Glasgow and Hamm. Tourism Management. September. ppBuckley, P. J. & Witt, S. F. (1989). Tourism in Difficult Areas II: Case Studies of Calderdale, Leeds, Manchester and Scunthorpe. Tourism Management. June. ppBurgers J. (1995). Public Space in the Post – Industrial City. In Jansen-Verbeke M, & van de Weil, E. in Ashworth G.J. & Dietvorst A.G.D. (Eds). Tourism and Spatial Transformations. CAB International:Wallingford.Chatterton, P. & Hollands, R. (2001). Changing our ‘Toon’ – Youth, Nightlife and Urban Change in Newcastle. Newcastle: University of Newcastle upon Tyne.Gomez, M, V. (1998). Reflective Images: The case of Urban Regeneration in Glasgow and Bilbao. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol 22 (1). pp 106 – 22.Hannigan, J. (1998). Fantasy City: Pleasure and Profit in the Postmodern Metropolis. Routledge: London.Harcup, T. (2000). Re-imaging a Post-Industrial City: The Leeds St. Valentine’s Fair as a Civic Spectacle. City. Vol 4 (2). ppJansen–Verbeke, M. (1986). Inner City Tourism: Resources, Tourists and Promoters. Annals of Tourism Research. 13 (1): 79 –100.Judd, D. R., & Fainstein S. S.(Eds). (1999). The Tourist City. Yale University Press: London.Mullins, P. (1991). Tourism Urbanization. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Vol 15. No 3.Tyler et al.(1998). Managing Tourism in Cities. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Miles, M. (1995). Art and Urban Regeneration. Urban History. Vol. 22 (2). ppYou won’t find these in the original reading list they are extras, mainly looking at cities such as newcastle and sunderland - Remember to use Inter Library Loans