Presentation on theme: "American History (1945-1980s) Chapter 17. The Origins of the Cold War Conflicts between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during WWII Clash of interests between."— Presentation transcript:
On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman presented this address before a joint session of Congress. His message, known as the Truman Doctrine, asked Congress for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Turkey and Greece. President Truman declared, "It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." The sanction of aid to Greece and Turkey by a Republican Congress indicated the beginning of a long and enduring bipartisan cold war foreign policy.
McCarthyism The comprehensive investigation initiated by President Truman Joseph R. McCarthy and McCarthyism
Alger Hiss: Educated at John Hopkins University and Harvard Law School. He worked for the Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, before serving in the departments of Agriculture, Justice and State, in the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hiss also served as Roosevelt's adviser at the Yalta Conference in 1945. After working briefly as secretary-general of the United Nations, in 1949 Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Alger Hiss died on 15th November, 1996
Senator Joseph McCarthy (left) with his attorney Roy Cohn, at a House Un-American Activities Committee hearing in 1951.
It should be noted, however, that a framework of laws, political force fields, anti-Red rhetoric and theatrical anti-Communist methods predated McCarthy's rise. He was first to discover neither the presence nor political value of the Red Menace.
From 1938 to 1942, in the era of the Nazi- Soviet Pact and the onset of World War II, the federal government's legislative and executive branches had set up programs to exclude Communists (and fascists) from federal jobs. The House of Representatives launched the Committee on Un-American Activities in 1938. The 1940 Smith Act outlawed seeking or advocating overthrow of government by force or violence.federal jobs
In 1942 a loyalty program was instituted to weed Communists and other "subversives" out of government jobs. The Cold War heightened pressures to rein in Communist influences. President Truman instituted a tougher loyalty program in 1947. In 1948 his Justice Department prosecuted leaders of the Communist Party under the Smith Act. Congress passed the Internal Security Act in 1950.Justice Department
The Civil Rights Movement (1950s) The end of segregation in education The end of segregation in public transportation
Brown v. Board of Education In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grader named Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her black elementary school, even though a white elementary school was only seven blocks away. Linda's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka's branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. With Brown's complaint, it had "the right plaintiff at the right time." Other black parents joined Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an injunction that would forbid the segregation of Topeka's public schools.
Although the famous court case, Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, had declared that school segregation in the South was unconstitutional, many Southern states refused to integrate their schools. Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas was one such school.
After several years of stalling, it was to have the 1957 school year desegregated. On September 2, the night before the first day of school, Governor Faubus announced that he had ordered the Arkansas National Guard to monitor the school. When a group of nine black students arrived at Central High on September 3, they were kept from entering by the National Guardsmen.
On September 20, an injunction( 禁令 ) against Governor Faubus was issued and three days later the group of nine students returned to Central High School. Although the students were not physically injured, a mob of 1,000 townspeople prevented them from remaining at school. Finally, after many diplomatic efforts, President Eisenhower intervened militarily, ordering 1,000 paratroopers and 10,000 National Guardsmen to Little Rock, and on September 25, Central High School was desegregated.
Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators.
The Vietnam War (1950-75) Beginning of American involvement in Vietnam Outbreak of the Civil War in the south "Americanization" of the war "Vietnamization" of the war and the cease- fire agreement Impact of the Vietnam War on American society
United States' Relations with China The Taiwan problem and U.S. support of Chiang Kaishek Change in U.S. policy towards China and Nixon's visit Three conditions for normalization and remaining problems
The Taiwan problem and U.S. support of Chiang Kaishek Since Truman sent the 7th Fleet to the Taiwan Straits and declared that the status of Taiwan was undecided, the Taiwan problem had been a key problem in U.S.-China relations.
In December 1954, the U.S. government signed a Mutual Defense Treaty with the Chiang Kaishek regime on Taiwan, committing itself to the defense of Taiwan and Penghu. In the two Taiwan Straits crises of 1954 and 1958, the U.S. provided Chiang with military aid considered, on several occasions, the use of tactical nuclear weapons against military targets on Mainland China.
Change in U.S. policy towards China and Nixon's visit In the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the deep involvement in the Vietnam War and the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union in the world, the U.S. began to look for a way to improve relations with China so as to get China's help for its withdrawal from South Vietnam and to work with China against Soviet expansion.
In February 1972, President Nixon visited China and the two countries issued the Shanghai Communiqué. The visit ended twenty-three years of hostility and led to the establishment of diplomatic relations in January 1979.
Three conditions for normalization From 1972 to 1979, the key problem that affected the progress in U.S.-China relations remained the Taiwan problem. The Chinese side insisted that, to establish diplomatic relations, the U.S. must withdraw its troops from Taiwan and the Taiwan Straits, end diplomatic relations with Taiwan and cancel the Mutual Defense Treaty. It was not until November 1978 that the Carter Administration finally accepted the three conditions.
Remaining problems But soon after the establishment of diplomatic relations, Congress, supported by the Carter Administration, adopted the Taiwan Relations Act which, in words and spirit, violates the spirit of the agreement for the establishment of diplomatic relations.
Reform, Radicalism and Disappointment (1961-1973) Reform-a period of liberal atmosphere Radicalism and Disappointment
Reform-a period of liberal atmosphere The New Frontier The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee. Originally just a slogan to inspire America to get behind him, the phrase developed into a label for his administration's domestic and foreign programs. –W–We stand at the edge of a New Frontier—the frontier of unfulfilled hopes and dreams. It will deal with unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus.
Lyndon Johnson: a Texan who was majority leader in the Senate before becoming Kennedy's vice president, was a masterful politician. As president, he wanted to use his power aggressively to eliminate poverty and spread the benefits of prosperity to all.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Lyndon Johnson was determined to secure the measures that Kennedy had sought. Immediate priorities were bills to reduce taxes and guarantee civil rights. Using his skills of persuasion and calling on the legislators' respect for the slain president, in 1964 Johnson succeeded in gaining passage of the Civil Rights Bill. Introduced by Kennedy, it was the most far-reaching piece of civil rights legislation enacted since Reconstruction. The bill outlawed discrimination not only in public housing, but also in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
On April 24, 1964, Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson visited Inez, Ky., and the property of Tommy Fletcher, a father of eight whose living conditions epitomized the squalor that characterized Appalachia for decades. On Fletcher's porch, Johnson declared the War on Poverty.
The War on Poverty: The War on Poverty greatly reduced hunger and suffering in the United States. Especially significant was the doubling of federal spending on social security, health, welfare, and education, that occurred between 1965 and 1970.
On the economic front, Johnson pushed successfully for a tax cut, then pressed for a poverty program Kennedy had initiated. "This administration today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America," he announced. The Office of Economic Opportunity provided training for the poor and established various community-action programs to give the poor themselves a voice in housing, health and education programs.
Medical care came next. Truman had proposed a centralized scheme more than 20 years earlier, but had failed to gain congressional passage. Under Johnson's leadership, Congress enacted Medicare, a health insurance program for the elderly, and Medicaid, a program providing health-care assistance for the poor. Similarly, Johnson succeeded in the effort to provide aid for elementary and secondary schooling where Kennedy had failed. The measure that was enacted gave money to the states based on the number of their children from low-income families. Funds could be used to assist public- and private-school children alike.
Radicalism and Disappointment TT he rise of Black Power: The period of liberal atmosphere was short-lived. As liberal laws were resisted by white supremacists and actual benefits to the blacks were slow in coming, some black civil rights activists proclaimed the rise of Black Power. The black Muslims led by Malcolm X advocated violence in self-defense and attempted to separate themselves from white society. The wellspring of this new militancy was Black Nationalism, the concept that black people everywhere in the world shared a unique history and cultural heritage that set them apart from whites.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Free Speech Movement Anti-Vietnam War Movement The National Organization for Women (NOW)
The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS): In 1962, a group of radical students met in Port Huron, Michigan to form the Students for a Democratic Society. The Port Huron Statement adopted the position of "anti-anti-Communism," refusing to support the West in the Cold War. The statement denounced bigotry in the United States, world hunger and American abundance, materialism, personal alienation, industrialization, the threat of nuclear war, military spending, and the Cold War.
The Free Speech Movement (FSM) a student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 school year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of several students. In protests unprecedented at the time, students insisted that the university administration lift a ban on on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom.
Students protest for free speech on the Berkeley campus
Anti-Vietnam War Movement political movement protesting United States involvement in the Vietnam War (1959-1975). The anti-Vietnam War movement was the most vocal and sustained antiwar movement in the nation’s history. It began in the early 1960s in response to increased U.S. participation in Vietnam. The movement eventually encompassed thousands of different groups and millions of people who participated in loosely organized protests to convince their fellow citizens, as well as their elected officials, that the war was wrong. By 1972 opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam had become a mainstream, if still controversial, political viewpoint.
The Counterculture: In the wake of the Free Speech Movement and the anti-Vietnam War Movement appeared the movement of Counterculture which revolted against the moral values, the aesthetic standards, the personal behavior and the social relations of conventional society. Revolutionaries like Mao Zedong and Fidel Castro became models for some of them, while millions of college students experimented with marijuana and hallucinogenic drugs. And music, particularly rock music, became the chief vehicle for the counterculture attack on the status quo.
The National Organization for Women (NOW): Following the adoption of the 19th Amendment in 1920, the women's rights movement had faded. But in the 1960s feminism was reborn. In the Feminine Mystique (1963), Betty Friedan wrote that the American home had become a "comfortable concentration camp". This book inspired the founding in 1966 of the National Organization of Women, which was a reform organization battling for equal rights in partnership with men. This radical movement produced a new literature in which feminists challenged everything from women's economic, political, and legal inequality to sexual double standards and sex role stereotypes.
The illegal breaking into the Watergate On the night of June 17, 1972, police at the Watergate apartment-office complex in Washington D.C. arrested five men who illegally broke into the offices of the Democratic National Committee. Later, these five men proved to be working for the Republican Richard Nixon's Committee to re- elect the President. The illegal breaking turned out to be part of an official plot to defeat the Democrats in an election.
The taping system in the White House and the resignation of Nixon In 1973, one of Nixon's aides, Alexander Butterfield, disclosed that Nixon had a taping system installed in the White House, and that conversations about Watergate had been recorded. After refusing to surrender his tapes, Nixon was taken to court by the Watergate special investigator. On August 5, Nixon finally handed over the complete tapes to the House Judiciary Committee. Forty days later, Nixon resigned, the first president to do so in U.S. history.
Impact of the Watergate Scandal After Watergate, Americans' disillusionment grew. Most had grown up believing their system was the most powerful, the best, and the most democratic in the history of humankind. By the early 1980s, far fewer Americans clung to such beliefs, and many wondered why they had not shed their innocence earlier.
New Conservatism and the Election of Ronald Reagan Declining of American economy and prestige The New Right and their program
Declining of American economy and prestige From the mid-seventies onwards, the U.S. suffered from "stagflation" and inflation at the same time. Economic growth was slowing, while prices and unemployment were rising. The income of American working people went down with the declining of the real spendable earnings. The economic recession affected a large section of the middle class who became more and more disappointed and dissatisfied.
Besides, as a result of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal, American prestige became much lower abroad, and in the face of Soviet aggressive expansion the U.S. seemed impotent. This made many Americans feel humiliated and want to strike back.
The New Right and their program In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a rise in New Right conservatism. The New Right consists of two groups of people: the firm believers of Protestant religious teachings who were more concerned with social and moral issues; and the intellectuals who were more concerned with political and foreign policy issues.
The New Right demanded equal time in school for the teaching of man created by God in contrast to the teaching of evolution, opposed abortion and "affirmative action“ (i.e. preferential treatment for minorities and women in education and employment), and demanded tax cuts, social security spending cuts, and the rebuilding of American military strength.
It was this trend of conservatism that brought Ronald Reagan into the White House in 1981.
On February 6, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan was born to Nelle and John Reagan in Tampico, Illinois. He attended high school in nearby Dixon and then worked his way through Eureka College. There, he studied economics and sociology, played on the football team, and acted in school plays. Upon graduation, he became a radio sports announcer. A screen test in 1937 won him a contract in Hollywood. During the next two decades he appeared in 53 films.
As president of the Screen Actors Guild, Reagan became embroiled in disputes over the issue of Communism in the film industry; his political views shifted from liberal to conservative. He toured the country as a television host, becoming a spokesman for conservatism. In 1966 he was elected Governor of California by a margin of a million votes; he was re-elected in 1970.
Ronald Reagan won the Republican Presidential nomination in 1980 and chose as his running mate former Texas Congressman and United Nations Ambassador George Bush. Voters troubled by inflation and by the year- long confinement of Americans in Iran swept the Republican ticket into office. Reagan won 489 electoral votes to 49 for President Jimmy Carter.
On January 20, 1981, Reagan took office. Only 69 days later he was shot by a would-be assassin, but quickly recovered and returned to duty. His grace and wit during the dangerous incident caused his popularity to soar.
Dealing skillfully with Congress, Reagan obtained legislation to stimulate economic growth, curb inflation, increase employment, and strengthen national defense. He embarked upon a course of cutting taxes and Government expenditures, refusing to deviate from it when the strengthening of defense forces led to a large deficit.
A renewal of national self-confidence by 1984 helped Reagan and Bush win a second term with an unprecedented number of electoral votes. Their victory turned away Democratic challengers Walter F. Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro.
1. Conflicts arose between the United States and the Soviet Union because___. A. their common enemies Nazi Germany and Japan were defeated B. They had very different concepts of postwar world order C. the United States wanted cooperation with the Soviet Union but the Soviet Union refused. D. the soviet Union wanted cooperation with the United States but the Untied States refused
2. The essence of the Truman Doctrine was ______. A. to provide economic and military support for any country which was fighting internal Communist rebels or external Communist pressure B. to provide aid for Greece and Turkey which were fighting against Communism C. to provide economic aid to needy countries D. to give moral support to the struggle of free people
3. President Truman on March 21, 1947 issued an executive order, initiating a comprehensive investigation of the loyalty of all federal employees. This was the beginning of ______. A. McCarthyism B. Clearing out Soviet spies C. widespread persecution of Communists and progressive people D. persecution of federal employees
4. The Supreme Court played a role in whipping up the anticommunist hysteria by ______. A. upholding the constitutionality of the Smith Act B. convicting 11 high-ranking Communist leaders C. supporting the trial of Alger Hiss D. supporting President Truman's executive order
5. When ______,this was the beginning of American involvement in Vietnam. A. the United States decided to provide France with military aid in their fight in Vietnam B. the United States started to provide aid for the South Vietnamese government after the Geneva Conference in 1854 C. the United States sent more and more military advisers to South Vietnam D. the United States began to Americanize the war in Vietnam