Presentation on theme: "Events Leading to a Brawl Pierre and Hans were bitter enemies. Ever since elementary school, the two had not gotten along. It started in second grade."— Presentation transcript:
Events Leading to a Brawl
Pierre and Hans were bitter enemies. Ever since elementary school, the two had not gotten along. It started in second grade when Pierre made fun of Hans after finding out that Hans’ mother still dressed him for school. From there, the fighting between the two intensified. By high school, it was all out war.
Pierre and Hans would routinely try to attack each other. So, they both came up with their own plans. Each teen got a group of his friends together and made a pledge that they would defend each other. So, Hans and his friends Franz, Abdul, and Vinny made a secret pact. If any one of the four were attacked, all four would go after the attacker. Pierre made a similar agreement with his friends, Winston, Sergei, and Dejan. Now, both felt safer.
Another strategy taken by both Pierre and Hans was to equip themselves with weapons. They each carried pocketknives, box cutters, and brass knuckles. Their friends also carried such weapons.
Both Pierre and Hans were schoolyard bullies. Beginning in elementary school, both boys would prey upon weaker kids in the schoolyard and steal their lunch money. They continued this behavior through high school. However, as Pierre and Hans took money from more and more kids, they began to come into conflict with each other. It seemed like a race between the two to see who could beat up and steal money from more kids. After all, both Pierre and Hans had pride and each wanted to keep alive his reputation as the toughest, meanest kid in school. The friends these two had also tried to get ‘control’ over part of the schoolyard. They too tried to beat up as many kids as they could to steal lunch money.
One day, Franz (Hans’ friend) got into a fight and beat up Dejan (Pierre’s friend). Instead of the fight ending there, a school-wide rumble including hundreds of students followed. In the rumble, many weapons were used and several students died, and even more were seriously injured. How did one little fight involving Franz and Dejan develop into such a horrible and brutal brawl?
Militarism How did the fact that each teen accumulated weapons help lead to a large fight?
Alliances How did the fact the teens made pacts to defend one another help start the brawl?
Imperialism How did the teens being bullies help cause the fight to begin?
Nationalism How did the fact each teen had immense pride help lead to a brawl?
The World at War - WWI: The World at War - WWI:
Causes of the War
1. Militarism (Arms Race) Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers in millions of £s (pounds) Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
2. The Alliance System Triple Entente (Allied Powers): Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Britain, France and Russia Germany, Italy, Austria- Hungary
Europe in 1914
The “ Spark ”
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe Brinkmanship – the practice of threatening to go to war to achieve one’s goals Conscription – a military draft Mobilization – the process of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
The Assassination: Sarajevo (The Spark!) Gavrilo Princip: the assassin
Who’s To Blame?
Women and the Home Front
Red Cross Nurses
Spies e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margaretha Gertruide Zelle e German Spy! e “Mata Hari” e Real Name: Margaretha Gertruide Zelle e German Spy!
Posters: Wartime Propaganda
In order to ensure that enough was produced for the war, governments increased their powers, even taking over industries Free speech was curtailed to prevent dissention that could harm war effort Used propaganda to sway public opinion Governments Increase Powers
German Atrocities in Belgium Britain Joins the War
Recruitment Posters (Propaganda)
Financing the War
A 2 War Front War *Germany had to fight from both the East (Russia) & West (France)
The Western Front: A “ War of Attrition ”
The Schlieffen (SHLEE-fun) Plan
The Western Front Trench Warfare – fighting from ditches, protected by barbed wire, led to stalemate War of attrition – a war based on wearing the other side down by constant attack and heavy losses.
“No Man’s Land” = the area of land between your trench and the enemy trench
The Eastern Front
Russia experienced a revolution in 1917 and quits the war, signing the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk Russia Drops Out
The “ Colonial ” Fronts
Other than Europe, the Middle East saw the biggest battles as the Ottomans (Turks) fought Britain, Russia, and France The Middle East
Hussein-McMahon Correspondence G.B. promised the land of Palestine to Arabs if they helped fight the Ottomans Balfour Declaration Jews promised a homeland in Palestine if they helped the Allies fight The Middle East – A Dual Promise
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”,
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, Arabs Left Out at Versailles
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Major reason Allies fighting war was nationalism, and to gain independence for eastern Europe So, colonial subjects in Africa, and other parts of world thought that in return for their assistance they would gain independence This did not happen Fighting in Africa
Fighting in Asia
Japan had alliance with Britain, so entered WW1 on side of Allies Japan able to take more land (especially from China) during the war Following the war, Japan was mostly ignored at the peace conference The Japanese were angry and continued to expand Japan’s Continued Rise
America Joins the Allies
Neutrality Helps As Europe became embroiled in war, the U.S. benefitted economically Sold war supplies and, along with Japan, became major exporter, replacing Europeans in many parts of world This would remain after the war
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming!
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
The End of World War I
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed! End of WWI
Versailles Treaty Germany punished – war guilt, reparations, and disarmament Leads to social and economic problems in Germany Wilson’s self-determination not granted around the world, only eastern Europe (see map)see map Colonial peoples are dissatisfied, leads to independence movements (ex: Gandhi in India)
League of Nations
World War I Casualties
15,000,000 Dead from WWI Another 20 million wounded
The Somme American Cemetery, France 116,516 Americans Died America becomes Isolationist 116,516 Americans Died America becomes Isolationist